Key to 30+ Cantharellus and Craterellus Taxa in North America
|1.||Mature mushroom medium-sized to large; fairly tough and fleshy; often with a central depression that is coarsely scaly; some species growing in clusters with shared stem bases; spores somewhat wrinkled or warted (not smooth).|
|1.||Mature mushroom variously sized; fleshy or thin-fleshed; without a coarsely scaly central depression (or, if so, then thin-fleshed); growing alone, gregariously, or in clusters but not sharing stems (with two exceptions); spores smooth.|
|2.||Mushrooms small to medium-sized; either thin-fleshed and vase-shaped--or with a hollowing stem and often, at maturity, a perforation in the center of the cap; often growing in or near moss or sphagnum.|
|2.||Mushrooms variously sized; fleshy; not becoming hollow in the stem or developing a perforation in the center of the cap; usually not growing in moss or sphagnum.|
|3.||Yellow to orange shades present, at least on the undersurface and/or stem.|
|3.||Yellow to orange shades absent--except, perhaps, as a faint dusting on the under surface of mature specimens.|
|4.||Under or outer surface smooth, wrinkled, or somewhat veined--but without well developed false gills.|
|4.||Under or outer surface with well developed false gills.|
|5.||Mushroom thin-fleshed and deeply vase-shaped, without a clearly defined cap.|
|5.||Cap and stem fairly clearly defined.|
|6.||Individual caps sharing stem bases in dense, tightly-packed clusters; caps sometimes fused together at their edges; distribution primarily in the Gulf Coast states and Mexico.|
|6.||Stem bases not shared; caps not fusing together; rare on the West Coast and even more rare (or absent) elsewhere.|
|7.||Cap surface with tiny brownish fibers over a yellowish to orangish base color, usually developing tiny scales by maturity (use a hand lens).|
|8.||Mature cap surface yellow to orange.|
|9.||Found in well drained pine-hardwood forests in the Gulf Coast states, usually near slash pine.|
|10.||Growing in early spring in eastern North America, attached to hardwood sticks or hardwood debris; goblet-shaped or cup-shaped.|
|11.||Blue to purplish shades present in fresh, young specimens.|
|11.||Blue to purplish shades absent.|
|12.||Growing in dense clusters, often with stem bases fused, under conifers in northern and montane North America.|
|12.||Growing scattered or gregariously (not in dense clusters) in sphagnum bogs in the Great Lakes region.|
|13.||Mature under or outer surface smooth to shallowly wrinkled.|
|13.||Mature under or outer surface prominently wrinkled or veined.|
|14.||Mature mushrooms less than 2 cm across.|
|15.||Known from North Carolina "in small clusters on wood or deep woody humus" (Petersen 1969); cap edge hairy to fringed; spores 8-10.5 x 5-7 µ.|
|15.||Not completely as above.|
|17.||Mushrooms deeply vase-shaped or tubular from the beginning; odor sweet and strong; usually growing in clusters of 2-4 mushrooms; found in eastern North America's hardwood forests.|
|17.||Mushrooms not vase-shaped or tubular from the beginning, but developing a central depression or perforation with maturity; odor variable; growing alone, gregariously, or in dense clusters; distributed variously.|
|18.||Known from South America and Central America; growing alone, scattered, or in small clusters.|
|18.||Known from North America--primarily in disturbed-ground areas (road banks, paths, etc.) in northern and eastern hardwood forests; often growing in tightly packed clusters of 3 or more mushrooms.|
|19.||Known from Central America under oaks; cap surface purplish gray; false gills creamy.|
|20.||Found in western North America.|
|20.||Found east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|22.||Growing under spruces (especially Engelmann spruce); cap surface dull yellow, with a pinkish bloom when very young; false gills brilliant orange, frequently contrasting markedly with the cap; surfaces not bruising brownish to brownish orange when handled.|
|22.||Not completely as above.|
|23.||Growing under hemlock, Douglas-fir, spruce, or lodgepole pine in the coastal Pacific Northwest; false gills usually distinctly pinkish when young; cap surface developing small scales and appressed fibers; stem often tapered gracefully to the base.|
|23.||Not completely as above.|
|24.||Growing under coast live oak in northern California; cap smooth and egg-yolk yellow; false gills usually yellow; stem not usually tapered to base; often massive; often pushing up through forest debris so that leaves and mud stick to the mushrooms' surfaces.|
|24.||Not completely as above.|
|25.||Growing under hemlock or Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest; false gills pale orange yellow when young; cap sometimes fading to whitish from the center outwards; stem usually club-shaped or swollen; cap surface smooth or very finely hairy but not typically developing tiny scales.|
|26.||Cinnabar red shades absent.|
|27.||Surfaces bruising purple; recorded from North Carolina.|Gloeocantharellus purpurascensFull description and photo on page 182 of Giachini, 2004
|27.||Purple bruising absent.|
|28.||Under surface smooth, shallowly wrinkled, or with broad and poorly developed false gills.|
|28.||False gills well developed.|
|29.||Usually with multiple cap-like structures arising from one or more single or conglomerated stem structures; southeastern in distribution (Ohio to Mexico).|
|29.||With a single, well defined cap arising from a single stem; widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|30.||Cap brown or brownish, at least in the center, when the mushroom is young.|
|30.||Cap not brown or brownish in any stage of development.|
|31.||Growing in pine-hardwood forests (usually near slash pine) in the Gulf Coast states; mature cap orange-yellow; surfaces not changing color with iron salts.|
|31.||Growing under hardwoods from Missouri to the Great Lakes and the Appalachian Mountains; mature cap brownish yellow or yellow; surfaces reddish with iron salts.|
|32.||Peach shades absent; ecology and distribution variable.|
|33.||Mature cap small (0.5-3 cm across), with a fragile and waxy texture; stem becoming hollow.|
|33.||Mature cap variously sized but usually larger than above, not fragile or waxy; stem fleshy.|
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Cite This Page As:
Kuo, M. (2011, February). Chanterelles and trumpets: Cantharellus and Craterellus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/cantharellaceae.html