Studying Mushrooms > Mushroom Taxonomy


Mushroom Taxonomy: The Big Picture

by Michael Kuo


I frequently receive e-mails from frantic biology students who have been asked to discover the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species of a certain mushroom. Here, with the student's typo included, is the most entertaining example I've received so far:

Recently in my biology class we were asked to chose an orgasm. I chose the Armillariella ostoyae. My professor wants us to find the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, and or variety. I know the kingdom, genus and species. I have had difficulty finding the phylum, class, order and family. Do you know of any good sites that can help me with my research. Thank you very much.

Aside from recommending that the student might want to find a new professor, I replied that the taxonomical hierarchy for Armillaria ostoyae is:

    Fungi: Basidiomycota: Basidiomycetes: Agaricales: Tricholomataceae: Armillariella: ostoyae

. . . in the traditional, and now probably outdated, system. Armillaria has been reconceived within the past few years, resulting in the elimination of Armillariella, and placing the genus in the Marasmiaceae rather than the Tricholomataceae; also, there is debate about whether or not the kingdom and phylum distinctions should be made at some other level in the hierarchy.

But uncertainty is not what professors want on homework assignments. The problem is that there is no "correct" answer to the professor's question. Or, better said, the answer to the question changes constantly, and has been changing ever since Linnaeus started using Latin names to arrange organisms.

Though it is a fact usually unobserved in introductory biology classes, taxonomy does not represent organisms. Rather, taxonomy represents how we perceive and organize organisms. This is a very important difference. It is the difference, for example, between what happened at the scene of the crime, and what the witness saw happen at the scene of the crime--and anyone who has ever watched a courtroom drama knows how different these two things can be.

In my field (I am an English teacher), the rules of grammar and punctuation are seen by most teachers as unchanging and universal. Students are "wrong" if they omit the apostrophe from don't, or write "Everyday someone gets their lunch." Yet there was a time--not that long ago, from a historical perspective--when dont was perfectly correct, and the time is coming (or is already here) when this use of everyday and their is correct. People of my mother's generation physically cringe when they hear "their" used like this. People of my generation notice a problem, but use it anyway as a substitute for the sexist "his." My students don't even notice. Within my lifetime, the language has changed, as a result of a change in our culture: we became more aware of sexism, and less comfortable using masculine pronouns as universal pronouns.

With grammar and punctuation, however, the rule makers usually lag far behind the general population. This is because the rule makers (the authors and publishers of dictionaries and grammar handbooks) are conservative by nature, and often see themselves as corrective agents, holding back the masses and saving them from their mistakes. But with taxonomy, things are reversed. It is the mycologists, in the case of mushrooms, who are constantly changing things, and the general population that lags behind. Thus, I must provide the biology student above with an answer I know to be incorrect, knowing that her professor is likely working from outdated information.

Once, mushroom taxonomy was an arrangement of mushrooms based on their physical appearance. This one had gills, so it belonged in a group with other gilled mushrooms, while another mushroom, this one with pores, belonged in a different group. For well over a hundred years, advances in mushroom taxonomy simply represented more careful attention to the physical features of the mushrooms--and, importantly, the fact that more and more mushrooms from around the world were being sent to scientists in northern Europe. These scientists began to discover that closer examination revealed other groupings. Some of the gilled mushrooms had white spore prints, for example, and gills that were attached to the stem. New families and genera were named; species were placed in the hierarchy accordingly.

Then, roughly a hundred years ago, scientists began looking at mushrooms with microscopes. Some mycologists had been doing so earlier, but the hegemony of microscope mycology didn't take hold until the 20th century. As a result, new groupings emerged. These mushrooms, for example, had ornamented spores, indicating that they formed a group separate from other mushrooms that looked more or less the same to the naked eye, but had smooth spores. As microscopes got better and better, more taxonomical changes were made.

It is important to recall that the mushrooms themselves did not change during this brief history; what changed was the way we examined them. New technologies and methods of analysis--like studies of chemical composition, mating studies, and (especially) DNA analysis--are in vogue these days, and they are resulting in radical changes in mushroom taxonomy. Groups that we once thought were related, based on physical appearance or microscopic features, are turning out to be unrelated. But it is likely--I would say it is a certainty--that future mycologists will decide something besides DNA is the definitive key to mushroom taxonomy, or that the technology we're now using to see DNA is grossly inadequate, providing an inaccurate portrait. I have already spent a painful hour on the phone listening to one self-righteous DNA mycologist complain that another DNA mycologist was using equipment and techniques so outdated as to be meaningless. (It probably goes without saying that good equipment, in this mycologist's estimation, is the kind that costs so much money that there are only a few labs on earth that possess the technology.)

The taxonomical mess I have been describing is further complicated by the fact that the whole system was set up by fundamentalist Christians who believed that God created a perfect and unchanging universe. I discuss this problem in detail in "The Evolution of a Great Big Headache," but for our purposes here, suffice it to say that the idea that species evolve over time was added to mushroom taxonomy as an afterthought. "These mushrooms have ornamented spores, so they must have evolved together." These days it is fairly easy to see the logical fallacy in this statement, but it was not that easy to see in the 1960's. I would be laughed out of the room, however, if I suggested today that the same logic problem might be involved with: "The nucleotide sequence at the 5' end of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene of these mushrooms is statistically the same, so they must have evolved together."

I offer these comments by way of introducing the table below, which represents how mycologists currently see taxonomical relationships between mushrooms. I have culled the information from Ainsworth & Bisby's 2001 Dictionary of the Fungi (see the notes below for a complete citation), and I have included only "mushroom" taxonomy--omitting the details on rusts, yeasts, lichens, molds, and so on. The editors of the Dictionary, of course, compiled information from peer-reviewed papers published in scientific journals; it should come as no surprise that editing such a compilation involves attempting to "standardize" things that have not yet become standards, resolving taxonomical conflicts that are often hotly debated, and so on. Yet Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary has become more or less the definitive standard for mushroom taxonomy; for better or worse, the biology student must consult this source to get the "best" current answer to a taxonomy question.

The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Kingdom Fungi

. . . based on Ainsworth & Bisby's 2001 Dictionary of the Fungi

See the notes at the bottom of the page for additional information and suggestions.


Phylum: Chytridiomycota (aquatic fungi . . . )
Phylum: Zygomycota (various saprobes, parasites [including Syzygites megalocarpus], and others . . . )
Phylum: Ascomycota
 Class: Pneumocystidomycetes (parasitic in lungs of mammals . . . )
 Class: Saccharomycetes (yeasts . . . )
 Class: Schizosaccharomycetes (yeasts . . . )
 Class: Taphrinomycetes (galls, witches' brooms . . . )
 Class: Neolectomycetes
  Subclass: Neolectomycetidae
   Order: Neolectales
    Family: Neolectaceae
 Class: Ascomycetes
  Subclass: Arthoniomycetidae (lichens . . .)
  Subclass: Chaetothyriomycetidae (black yeasts, other stuff . . . )
  Subclass: Dothideomycetidae
   (varied: saprobes, parasites [including Apiosporina morbosa], lichens, dung lovers . . . )
  Subclass: Erysiphomycetidae (powdery mildews . . . )
  Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae (includes Penicillium . . . )
  Subclass: Laboulbeniomycetidae (insect parasites and others . . . )
  Subclass: Lecanoromycetidae (lichens . . . )
  Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
   Order: Helotiales
    Family: Ascocorticiaceae
    Family: Bulgariaceae
     Bulgaria (see B. inquinans)
    Family: Cudoniaceae
     Cudonia (see C. circinans), Spathularia (see S. flavida), Spathulariopsis (see S. velutipes) . . .
    Family: Cyttariaceae
    Family: Dermateaceae
     (70 genera, 385 species . . .)
    Family: Geoglossaceae
     Geoglossum (see G. nigritum), Leucoglossum, Maasoglossum, Phaeoglossum, Thuemenidium, Trichoglossum
    Family: Heliotaceae
     101 genera, 623 species, including Bisporella (see B. citrina), Hymenoscyphus (see H. fructigenus), and Chlorociboria (see C. aeruginascens)
    Family: Hemiphacidiaceae
     5 genera, 12 species . . .
    Family: Hyaloscyphaceae
     58 genera, 541 species . . .
    Family: Leotiaceae
     Geocoryne, Leotia (see L. lubrica), Pezoloma
    Family: Loramycetaceae
    Family: Phacidiaceae
     Ascocoma, Lophophacidium, Phacidium
    Family: Rustroemiaceae
     3 genera, 100 species . . .
    Family: Sclerotiniaceae
     27 genera, 104 species . . .
    Family: Vibrisseaceae
     3 genera, 14 species . . .
  Subclass: Meliolomycetidae (weird stuff on leaves and stems . . . )
  Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
   (Hypomyces, Xylaria, Cordyceps (see C. militaris), Camarops (see C. petersii), and others . . . )
  Subclass: Spathulosporomycetidae
  Subclass: Pezizomycetidae
   Order: Pezizales
    Family: Ascobolaceae
     Ascobolus, Ascophanus, Cubonia, Saccobolus, Thecotheus
    Family: Ascodesmidaceae
     Ascodesmis, Eleutherascus
    Family: Carbomycetaceae
    Family: Discinaceae
     Gymnohydnotrya, Gyromitra, Pseudorhizina
    Family: Glaziellaceae
    Family: Helvellaceae
     Balsamia, Barssia, Cidaris, Helvella, Hydnotrya, Picoa, Pindara, Wynnella
    Family: Karstenellaceae
    Family: Morchellaceae
     Disciotis (see D. venosa), Morchella, Verpa (see V. bohemica)
    Family: Pezizaceae
     Amylascus, Boudiera, Hapsidomyces, Hydnobolites, Hydnotryopsis, Iodophanus, Iodowunnea, Kimbropezia, Muciturbo, Mycoclelandia, Pachyella (see P. clypeata), Pachyphloeus, Peziza (see P. repanda), Plicaria, Rhodopeziza, Ruhlandiella, Sarcosphaera (see S. coronaria), Sphaerozone, Tirmania
    Family: Pyrenemataceae
     Acervus, Aleuria (see A. aurantia), Aleurina, Anthracobia, Aparaphysaria, Arpina, Ascocalathium, Ascosparassis, Boubovia, Boudierella, Byssonectria, Cheilymenia (see C. stercorea), Dictyocoprotus, Eoaleurina, Galeoscypha, Genea, Geneosperma, Geopora, Geopyxis, Hiemsia, Humaria (see H. hemisphaerica), Hydnocystis, Hypotarzetta, Jafnea (see J. semitosta), Kotlabaea, Lamprospora, Lathraeodiscus, Lazuardia, Leucoscypha, Luciotrichus, Marcelleina, Melastiza, Miladian, Moravecia, Mycogalopsis, Neottiella, Nothojafnea, Octospora, Octosporella, Otidea (see O. onotica), Otideopsis, Oviascoma, Parascutellinia, Paratrichophaea, Paurocotylis, Petchiomyces, Phaeangium, Pseudaleuria, Pseudombrophila, Psilopezia, Pulvinula, Pyronema, Pyropyxis, Ramsbottomia, Rhizoblepharia, Rhodoscypha, Rhodotarzetta, Scutellinia (see S. scutellata), Smardaea, Sowerbyella, Sphaerosoma, Sphaerosporella, Spooneromyces, Stephensia, Tarzetta (see T. bronca), Tricharina, Trichophaea, Trichophaeopsis, Warcupia, Wilcoxina
    Family: Rhizinaceae
    Family: Sarcoscyphaceae
     Aurophora, Cookeina, Geodina, Kompsocypha, Microstoma (see M. floccosa), Nanoscypha, Phillipsia, Pithya, Pseudopithyella, Sarcoscypha (see S. coccinea), Thindia, Wynnea
    Family: Sarcosomataceae
     Donadinia, Galiella (see G. rufa), Korfiella, Plectania, Pseudoplectania, Sarcosoma, Selenaspora, Urnula (see U. craterium)
    Family: Terfeziaceae
     Cazia, Delastria, Loculotuber, Terfezia
    Family: Tuberaceae
     Choiromyces, Dingleya, Labyrinthomyces, Paradoxa, Reddellomyces, Tuber
Phylum: Basidiomycota
 Class: Ustilaginomycetes (smuts . . . )
 Class: Urediniomycetes (rusts . . . see Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)
 Class: Basidiomycetes
  Subclass: Tremellomycetidae
   Order: Auriculariales
    Family: Auriculariaceae
     Auricularia (see A. auricula), Mylittopsis, Neotyphula, Paraphelaria
   Order: Ceratobasidiales
    Family: Ceratobasidiaceae
     Ceratobasidium, Heteroacanthella, Metabourdotia, Monosporonella, Scotomyces, Thanatephorus, Waitea
    Family: Oliveoniaceae
   Order: Christianseniales
    Family: Christianseniaceae
   Order: Cystofilobasidiales
    Family: Cystofilobasidiaceae
     Cystofilobasidium, Mrakia, Xanthophyllomyces
   Order: Dacrymycetales
    Family: Cerinomycetaceae
    Family: Dacrymycetaceae
     Calocera (see C. cornea), Dacrymyces, Dacryonaema, Dacryopinax, Ditiola, Femsjonia, Guepiniopsis, Heterotextus
   Order: Filobasidiales
    Family: Filobasidiaceae
   Order: Tremellales
    Family: Aporpiaceae
    Family: Exidiaceae
     Basidiodendron, Bourdotia, Ceratosebacina, Craterocolla, Ductifera (see D. pululahuana), Efibulobasidium, Eichleriella, Endoperplexa, Exidia (see E. glandulosa), Exidiopsis, Fibulosebacea, Heterochaete, Heteroscypha, Microsebacina, Patoulliardina, Protodaedalea, Protohydnum, Protomerulius, Pseudohydnum (see P. gelatinosum), Pseudostypella, Renatobasidium, Sebacina, Serendipita, Stypella, Tremellacantha, Tremellodendron (see T. pallidum), Tremelloscypha, Tremiscus (see Phlogiotis helvelloides)
    Family: Hyaloriaceae
    Family: Phragmoxenidiaceae
    Family: Rhynchogastremataceae
    Family: Sirobasidiaceae
     Fibulobasidium, Sirobasidium, Xenolachne
    Family: Syzygosporaceae
     Syzygospora (see S. mycetophila)
    Family: Tetragoniomycetaceae
    Family: Tremellaceae
     Bulleromyces, Dictyotremella, Holtermannia, Neotremella, Phyllopta, Protoradulum, Sirotrema, Tremella (see T. mesenterica), Tremellostereum, Trimophomyces, Zanchia
    Family: Tremellodendropsidaceae
   Order: Tulasnellales
    Family: Tulasnellaceae
     Pseudotulasnella, Tulasnella
  Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
   Order: Cantharellales
    Family: Aphelariaceae
     Aphelaria, Phaeoaphelaria, Tumidapexus
    Family: Botryobasidiaceae
     Botryobasidium, Suillosporium
    Family: Cantharellaceae
     Cantharellus (see C. cibarius), Craterellus (see C. cornucopioides), Goossensia, Parastereopsis, Pterygellus
    Family: Clavulinaceae
     Clavulicium, Clavulina (see C. cristata), Membranomyces
    Family: Hydnaceae
     Corallofungus, Cystidiodendron, Dacrina, Dentinum, Gloeomucro, Hydnum (see H. repandum), Nigrohyndum, Phaeoradulum
   Order: Hymenochaetales
    Family: Hymenochaetaceae
     Asterodon, Aurificaria, Clavariachaete, Coltricia (see C. cinnamomea), Coltriciella, Cyclomyces, Erythromyces, Hydnochaete, Hymenochaete, Inonotus (see I. radiatus) , Phaeohydnochaete, Phellinidium, Phellinus (see P. gilvus), Phylloporia, Pyrrhoderma
    Family: Schizoporaceae
      Basidioradulum, Echinoporia, Hyphodontia, Leucophellinus, Oxyporus, Paratrichaptum, Poriodontia, Rofersella, Schizopora
   Order: Phallales
    Family: Geastraceae
      Geasteroides, Geastrum (see G. saccatum), Myriostoma, Nidulariopsis, Phialastrum, Pyrenogaster, Radiigera, Sphaerobolus
    Family: Gomphaceae
      Areocoryne, Beenakia, Ceratellopsis, Chaetotyphula, Clavariadelphus (see C. unicolor), Gloeocantharellus, Gomphus (see G. floccosus), Lentaria (see L. micheneri), Pseudogomphus, Ramariopsis (see R. kunzei), Terenodon
    Family: Hysterangiaceae
      Boninogaster, Circulocolumella, Clathrogaster, Gallacea, Hallingea, Hysterangium, Phallobata, Phallogaster, Phlebogaster, Rhopalogaster, Trappea
    Family: Phallaceae
      Aporophallus, Aseröe (see A. rubra), Blumenavia, Clavarula, Clathrus (see C. ruber), Claustula, Colus (see C. hirudinosus), Echinophallus, Endophallus, Gelopellis, Ileodictyon (see I. cibarium), Itajahya, Kobayasia, Laternea, Ligiella, Lysurus (see L. mokusin), Mutinus (see M. elegans), Neolysurus, Phallus (see P. impudicus), Protubera, Protuberella, Pseudoclathrus, Pseudocolus (see P. fusiformis), Staheliomyces (see S. cinctus), Staurophallus
    Family: Ramariaceae
      Austrogautieria, Delentaria, Gautieria, Kavinia, Protogautieria, Ramaria (see R. botrytis), Ramaricium, Rhodactina
   Order: Polyporales
    Family: Albatrellaceae
      Albatrellopsis, Albatrellus (see A. cristatus), Jahnoporus, Polyporoletus, Scutiger
    Family: Atheliaceae
      Amphinema, Amyloathelia, Amylocorticium, Athelia, Athelicium, Athelidium, Athelopsis, Butlerelfia, Byssocorticium, Byssosoporia, Cristinia, Dictyonema, Digitatispora, Fibulomyces, Hypochnella, Hypochniciellum, Irpicodon, Leptosporomyces, Lobulicium, Luellia, Melzericium, Mycostigma, Piloderma, Plicatura, Plicaturopsis, Tomentellopsis, Tylospora
    Family: Boreostereaceae
      Boreostereum, Chaetodermella, Mycobonia, Mycothele, Veluticeps
    Family: Corticiaceae
      Acantholichen, Ambivina, Amylobasidium, Corticirama, Corticium, Cytidia, Dendrocorticium, Dendrodontia, Dendrophysellum, Dendrothele, Dextrinodontia, Laetisaria, Licrostroma, Limonomyces, Lindtneria, Melzerodontia, Merulicium, Mulatoderma, Mycolindtneria, Nothocorticium, Papyrodiscus, Pulcherricium, Punctularia, Ripexicium, Vuilleminia
    Family: Cyphellaceae
     Adustomyces, Asterocyphella, Catilla, Cyphella, Gloeocorticium, Halocyphina, Hyphoradulum, Incrustocalyptella, Limnoperdon, Phaeoporotheleum, Radulodon, Radulomyces, Rhodoarrhenia, Sarcodontia, Seticyphella, Sphaerobasidioscypha, Thujacorticium, Wiesnerina, Woldmaria
    Family: Cystostereaceae
     Cericium, Crustomyces, Cystidiodontia, Cystostereum, Dentocorticium, Parvobasidium, Physodontia, Pteridomyces
    Family: Epitheliaceae
     Epithele, Epithelopsis, Skeletohydnum
    Family: Fomitopsidaceae
     Amylocystis, Anomoporia, Auriporia, Buglossoporus, Daedalea (see D. quercina), Donkioporia, Fomitopsis (see F. pinicola), Parmastomyces, Piptoporus (see P. betulinus), Postia, Wolfiporia
    Family: Ganodermataceae
     Amauroderma, Ganoderma (see G. lucidum), Haddowia, Humphreya
    Family: Gloeophyllaceae
     Gloeophyllum (see G. sepiarium)
    Family: Grammotheleaceae
     Grammothele, Hymenogramme, Porogramme, Theleporus
    Family: Hapalopilaceae
     Aurantiporus, Bjerkandera (see B. adusta), Ceriporia, Ceriporiopsis, Climacocystis, Gelatoporia, Hapalopilus (see H. nidulans), Ischnoderma (see I. resinosum), Leptoporus, Spongipellis (see S. pachyodon)
    Family: Hyphodermataceae
     Amaurohydnum, Amauromyces, Atheloderma, Brevicellicium, Bulbilomyces, Cerocorticium, Chrysoderma, Conohypha, Coronicium, Cyanodontia, Elaphocephala, Galzinia, Hyphoderma, Hyphodontiastra, Hyphodontiella, Hypochnicium, Intextomyces, Pirex, Subulicium, Subulicystidium, Uncobasidium, Xylodon
    Family: Meripilaceae
     Abortiporus (see A. biennis), Antrodia, Diacanthodes, Grifola (see G. frondosa), Henningsia, Hydnopolyporus, Meripilus (see M. giganteus), Physisporinus, Rigidoporus
    Family: Meruliaceae
     Byssomerulius, Castanoporus, Chondrostereum, Climacodon (see C. septentrionale), Columnodontia, Crustoderma, Cylindrobasidium, Dacryobolus, Gloeoporus (see G. dichrous), Gloeostereum, Meruliopsis, Mycoacia, Mycoaciella, Phlebia (see P. incarnata), Resinicium, Skvortzovia
    Family: Phanerochaetaceae
     Botryodontia, Candelabrochaete, Ceraceomyces, Erythricium, Gyrophanopsis, Hyphodermella, Lopharia, Odonticium, Phanerochaete, Phlebiopsis, Porostereum, Terana
    Family: Podoscyphaceae
     Aquascypha, Caripia, Coralloderma, Cotylidia, Cymatoderma, Cyphellostereum, Granulobasidium, Inflatostereum, Podoscypha, Pseudolasiobolus, Steriopsis
    Family: Polyporaceae
     Abundisporus, Amyloporia, Amyloporiella, Australoporus, Austrolentinus, Bridgeoporus, Cerrena (see C. unicolor), Coriolopsis (see C. gallica), Cryptomphalina, Cryptoporus (see C. volvatus), Cystidiophorus, Daedaleopsis (see D. confragosa), Datronia, Dichomitus, Earliella, Echinochaete, Faerberia, Favolus (see F. alveolaris), Flabellophora, Fomes (see F. fomentarius), Fomitella, Fuscocerrena, Globifomes, Grammothelopsis, Haploporus, Hexagonia, Laccocephalum, Laetiporus (see L. sulphureus), Lasiochlaena, Lentinus, Lenzites (see L. betulina), Lignosus, Macrohyporia, Macroporia, Megasporoporia, Microporellus, Microporus, Mollicarpus, Navisporus, Neolentinus, Neolentiporus, Nigrofomes, Nigroporus (see N. vinosus), Oligoporus, Osmoporus, Pachykytospora, Panus (see P. conchatus), Perenniporia (see P. ohiensis), Phaeolus (see P. schweinitzii), Phaeotrametes, Piloporia, Podofomes, Polyporus (see P. squamosus), Poria, Porodisculus, Poronidulus, Pseudofavolus, Pseudopiptoporus, Pycnoporellus (see P. alboluteus), Pycnoporus (see P. cinnabarinus), Pyrofomes, Royoporus, Ryvardenia, Skeletocutis, Sparsitubus, Stiptophyllum, Tinctoporellus, Trametes (see T. versicolor), Trichaptum (see T. biforme), Tyromyces (see T. chioneus), Vanderbylia, Xerotus
    Family: Sistotremataceae
     Paullicorticium, Repetobasidiellum, Repetobasidium, Sistotrema, Sistotremastrum, Sistotremella, Sphaerobasidium, Trechispora
    Family: Sparassidaceae
     Bondarcevomyces, Sparassiella, Sparassis (see S. crispa)
    Family: Steccherinaceae
     Amethicium, Antrodiella, Australohydnum, Cinereomyces, Diplomitoporus, Fibricium, Flaviporus, Irpex (see I. lacteus), Junghuhnia, Lamelloporus, Mycoleptodonoides, Mycorrhaphium (see M. adustum), Steccherinum (see S. ochraceum), Stegiacantha
    Family: Tubulicrinaceae
     Leifia, Litschauerella, Tubulicium, Tubulicrinis
    Family: Xenasmataceae
     Aphanobasidium, Clitopilina, Cunninghammyces, Phlebiella, Xenasma, Xenasmatella, Xenosperma
   Order: Thelephorales
    Family: Bankeraceae
     Bankera, Boletopsis, Hydnellum, Phellodon (see P. confluens), Sarcodon (see S. imbricatus)
    Family: Thelephoraceae
     Amaurodon, Botryobasidium, Entolomina, Gymnoderma, Hydnodon, Hypochnopsis, Lenzitopsis, Phlyctibasidium, Pleurobasidium, Polyozellus (see P. multiplex), Pseudotomentella, Skepperia, Thelephora, Tomentella, Tomentellago
   Order: Russulales
    Family: Auriscalpiaceae
     Amylonotus, Auriscalpium (see A. vulgare), Clavicorona (see Artomyces pyxidatus), Gloeomyces, Lentinellus
    Family: Bondarzewiaceae
     Amylaria, Amylosporus, Bondarzewia (see B. berkeleyi), Gloeodontia, Gloiodon, Heterobasidion (see H. annosum), Stecchericium, Wrightoporia
    Family: Echinodontiaceae
     Echinodontium, Laurilia
    Family: Gloeocystidiellaceae
     Amylofungus, Dextrinocystidium
    Family: Hericiaceae
     Creolophus, Dentipellis, Dentipratulum, Hericium, Mucronella
    Family: Hybogasteraceae
    Family: Lachnocladiaceae
     Asterostroma, Dichantharellus, Dichopleuropus, Dichostereum, Lachnocladium, Scytinostroma, Stereofomes, Vararia
    Family: Peniophoraceae
     Dendrophora, Duportella, Entomocorticium, Peniophora (see P. rufa)
    Family: Russulaceae
     Arcangeliella (see A. desjardinii), Cystangium, Gymnomyces, Lactarius, Macowanites, Russula, Zelleromyces
    Family: Stephanosporaceae
    Family: Stereaceae
     Acanthobasidium, Acanthophysellum, Acanthophysium, Aleurobotrys, Aleurocystidiellum, Aleurocystis, Aleurodiscus (see A. oakesii), Amylohyphus, Amylosporomyces, Amylostereum, Boidinia, Chaetoderma, Conferticium, Coniophorafomes, Dextrinocystis, Gloeocystidiellum, Gloiothele, Laxitextum, Pseudoxenasma, Scotoderma, Scytinostromella, Stereum (see S. ostrea), Xylobolus (see X. frustulatus)
   Order: Boletales
    Family: Boletaceae
     Afroboletus, Aureoboletus, Austroboletus, Boletellus, Boletochaete, Boletus, Buchwaldoboletus, Chalciporus (see C. piperatus), Chamonixia (see C. caespitosa), Fistulinella, Gastroboletus, Gastroleccinum, Gastrotylopilus, Leccinum, Paxillogaster, Phylloboletellus, Phylloporus, Pulveroboletus (see P. ravenelii), Royoungia, Setogyroporus, Singeromyces, Sinoboletus, Strobilomyces, Tubosaeta, Tylopilus, Veloporphyrellus, Xanthoconium
    Family: Boletinellaceae
     Boletinellus, Phlebopus
    Family: Coniophoraceae
     Chrysoconia, Coniophora, Coniophoropsis, Corneromyces, Gyrodontium, Jaapia, Leucogyrophana, Meiorganum, Podoserpula, Pseudomerulius, Serpula
    Family: Diplocystaceae
    Family: Gasterellaceae
    Family: Gastrosporiaceae
    Family: Gomphidiaceae
     Chroogomphus, Cystogomphus, Gomphidius, Gomphogaster
    Family: Gyroporaceae
     Gyroporus, Rubinoboletus
    Family: Hygrophoropsidaceae
     Austropaxillus, Hygrophoropsis (see H. aurantiaca), Tapinella (see T. panuoides)
    Family: Hymenogasteraceae
     Amogaster, Brauniella, Cortinomyces, Descomyces, Destuntzia, Hymenogaster, Marthanella, Mycoamaranthus, Quadrispora, Timgrovea
    Family: Leucogastraceae
     Leucogaster, Leucophleps
    Family: Melanogastraceae
     Alpova, Corditubera, Hoehnelogaster, Melanogaster
    Family: Octavianinaceae
     Octavianina, Sclerogaster, Wakefieldia
    Family: Paxillaceae
     Austrogaster, Gymnopaxillus, Gyrodon, Neopaxillus, Paragyrodon (see P. sphaerosporus), Paxillus (see P. vernalis), Phyllobolites
    Family: Protogastraceae
    Family: Rhizopogonaceae
     Brauniellula, Fevansia, Rhizopogon
    Family: Sclerodermataceae
     Astraeus, Calostoma (see C. cinnabarinum), Favillea, Horakiella, Pisolithus (see P. tinctorius), Scleroderma, Tremellogaster
    Family: Suillaceae
     Psiloboletinus, Suillus, Truncocolumella
   Order: Agaricales
    Family: Agaricaceae
     Agaricus, Allopsalliota, Araneosa, Chamaemyces, Chlorolepiota, Chlorophyllum (see C. molybdites), Clarkeinda, Clavogaster, Constricta, Crucispora, Cystoagaricus, Cystolepiota, Endolepiotula, Endoptychum, Gasterellopsis, Gymnogaster, Gyrophragmium, Heinemannomyces, Hiatulopsis, Holocotylon, Hymenagaricus, Hypogaea, Janauaria, Lepiota (see L. cristata), Lepiotophyllum, Leucoagaricus (see L. naucinus), Leucocoprinus (see L. birnbaumii), Longula, Macrolepiota (see M. procera), Melanophyllum, Metraria, Metrodia, Micropsalliota, Montagnea, Neosecotium, Notholepiota, Panaeolopsis, Phaeopholiota, Phlebonema, Phyllogaster, Podaxis, Pseudoauricularia, Rugosospora, Schinzinia, Secotium, Singerina, Smithiogaster, Smithiomyces, Termiticola, Verrucospora, Volvigerum, Volvolepiota, Xanthagaricus
    Family: Bolbitiaceae
     Agrocybe, Agrogaster, Bolbitius (see B. vitellinus), Conocybe (see C. albipes), Cyphellopus, Cyttarophyllopsis, Galeropsis (see Gastrocybe lateritia), Gymnoglossum, Hebeloma (see H. sinapizans), Naucoria, Panaeolina, Panaeolus, Ptychella, Setchelliogaster, Tubariopsis, Tympanella, Wielandomyces
    Family: Broomeiaceae
    Family: Clavariaceae
     Clavaria (see C. vermicularis), Clavulinopsis (see C. laeticolor), Macrotyphula, Manina, Multiclavula, Podostrombium, Scytinopogon, Setigeroclavula
    Family: Coprinaceae
     Coprinus, Gasteroagaricoides, Lacrymaria (see L. velutina), Macrometrula, Psathyrella, Rhacophyllus, Xerocoprinus
    Family: Cortinariaceae
     Aroramyces, Chromocyphella, Cortinarius, Crepidotus, Cribbea, Cuphocybe, Descolea, Episphaeria, Flammulaster (see F. erinaceella), Galerina (see G. marginata), Gymnopilus, Hebelomina, Inocybe, Kjeldsenia, Leucocortinarius, Melanomphalia, Mycolevis, Nanstelocephala, Pellidiscus, Phaeocollybia, Phaeomarasmius, Phaeosolenia, Pseudogymnopilus, Pyrrhoglossum, Rapacea, Rozites (see Cortinarius caperatus), Simocybe (see S. centunculus), Stagnicola, Stephanopus, Thaxterogaster (see Cortinarius pingue), Tubaria
    Family: Entolomataceae
     Calliderma, Clitopilus (see C. prunulus), Entoloma, Rhodocybe (see R. mundula), Rhodocybella, Rhodogaster, Rhodophana, Richoniella
    Family: Fistulinaceae
     Fistulina (see F. hepatica)
    Family: Gigaspermaceae
    Family: Hemigasteraceae
    Family: Hydnangiaceae
     Hydnangium, Laccaria, Maccagnia, Podohydnangium
    Family: Lycoperdaceae
     Abstoma, Acutocapillitium, Arachnion, Arachniopsis, Bovista (see B. longispora), Bovistella, Calbovista, Calvatia (see C. craniiformis), Calvatiopsis, Disciseda, Gastropila, Glyptoderma, Japonogaster, Langermannia, Lycogalopsis, Lycoperdon (see L. pulcherrimum), Lycoperdopsis, Morganella (see M. pyriformis), Vascellum (see V. curtisii)
    Family: Marasmiaceae
     Amyloflagellula, Anastrophella, Anthracophyllum, Aphyllotus, Armillaria, Baeospora, Calathella, Campanella, Cephaloscypha, Chaetocalathus, Cymatella, Cymatellopsis, Cyptotrama, Dactylosporina, Deigloria, Epicnaphus, Favolaschia, Fissolimbus, Flagelloscypha, Flammulina, Gerronema (see G. strombodes), Glabrocyphella, Hispidocalyptella, Hymenogloea, Lachnella, Lecanocybe, Lentinula, Macrocystidia (see M. cucumis), Manuripia, Marasmiellus (see M. nigripes), Marasmius, Merismodes, Nochascypha, Omphalotus (see O. illudens), Oudesmansiella, Phaeodepas, Physalacria, Pseudotyphula, Rhodocollybia (see R. maculata), Setulipes, Skepperiella, Stipitocyphella, Strobilurus, Stromatocyphella, Tetrapyrgos, Xerula
    Family: Mesophelliaceae
     Andebbia, Castoreum, Gummiglobus, Malajczukia, Mesophellia, Nothocastoreum
    Family: Mycenastraceae
     Mycenastrum (see M. corium)
    Family: Niaceae
    Family: Nidulariaceae
     Crucibulum (see C. laeve), Cyathus (see C. striatus), Mycocalia, Nidula, Nidularia (see N. pulvinata)
    Family: Phellorinaceae
     Dictyocephalos, Phellorinia
    Family: Pleurotaceae
     Agaricochaete, Hohenbuehelia, Pleurotus (see P. ostreatus)
    Family: Pluteaceae
     Amanita, Chamaeota, Hyporrhodius, Limacella, Pluteus, Torrendia, Volvariella
    Family: Pterulaceae
     Actiniceps, Allantula, Ceratella, Deflexula, Parapterulicium, Pterula, Pterulicium
    Family: Schizophyllaceae
     Auriculariopsis, Henningsomyces, Porotheleum, Rectipilus, Schizophyllum (see S. commune)
    Family: Strophariaceae
     Leratiomyces, Mythicomyces, Nivatogastrium, Pachylepyrium, Pholiota, Pleuroflammula, Psilocybe, Weraroa
    Family: Tricholomataceae
     Aeruginospora, Amparoina, Arrhenia, Arthrosporella, Asproinocybe, Asterophora (see A. lycoperdoides), Austroclitocybe, Austroomphaliaster, Caesposus, Callistodermatium, Callistosporium (see C. luteo-olivaceum), Calocybe (see C. carnea), Calyptella, Camarophyllopsis, Cantharellula, Cantharocybe, Catathelasma, Catatrama, Caulorhiza (see C. umbonata), Cellypha, Cheimonophyllum, Chromosera, Chrysomphalina (see C. chrysophylla), Clavomphalia, Clitocybe, Clitocybula (see C. abundans), Collybia (see C. cirrhata), Conchomyces, Crinipellis (see C. zonata), Cynema, Cyphellocalathus, Cystoderma, Delicatula, Dendrocollybia (see D. racemosa), Dennisiomyces, Dermoloma, Fayodia, Flabellimycena, Floccularia, Gamundia, Haasiella, Hemimycena, Humidicutis, Hydropus, Hygroaster, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Hypsizygus (see H. ulmarius), Lactocollybia, Lempteromyces, Lepista, Leucoinocybe, Leucopaxillus, Leucopholiota, Lulesia, Lyophyllopsis, Lyophyllum (see L. decastes), Macrocybe (see M. titans), Maireina, Megacollybia, Melanoleuca, Metulocyphella, Mycena, Mycenella, Mycoalvimia, Myxomphalia, Neoclitocybe, Neonothopanus, Nothopanus, Omphaliaster, Omphalina (see O. epichysium), Ossicaulis, Palaeocephala, Panellus (see P. stipticus), Peglerochaete, Pegleromyces, Phaeolepiota, Phaeomycena, Phyllotopsis (see P. nidulans), Physocystidium, Pleurella, Pleurocollybia, Pleurocybella, Porpoloma, Pseudoarmillariella, Pseudobaeospora, Pseudoclitocybe, Pseudohiatula, Pseudohygrophorus, Pseudoomphalina, Resinomycena, Resupinatus (see R. alboniger), Rhodotus (see R. palmatus), Rickenella (see R. fibula), Rimbachia, Ripartitella (see R. brasiliensis), Ripartites, Semiomphalina, Sinotermitomyces, Squamanita, Stanglomyces, Stigmatolemma, Tectella, Tephrocybe, Termitomyces, Tricholoma, Tricholomopsis (see T. decora), Tricholosporum, Trogia, Xeromphalina (see X. kauffmanii)
    Family: Tulostomataceae
     Battarrea (see B. phalloides), Battarreoides, Chlamydopus, Queletia, Schizostoma, Tulostoma (see T. lloydii)
    Family: Typhulaceae
     Lutypha, Pistillaria, Pistillina, Typhula



I have done my best to avoid typing mistakes in the table above, but I ask you to imagine typing Hypsizgus, Syzygospora, Iodowunnea and the like for hours on end with no recourse to a spell-checker. If you find a mistake, please drop me a line; I will appreciate knowing it.

Use Control/F in your browser to search the name of a genus. If the genus you are searching is not on the page, it may have been renamed, or collapsed into another genus. This often happens; notice for example that the genus Stropharia is not listed in the Strophariaceae (which is named after Stropharia), since it has been found to belong in Psilocybe. It is also possible that a genus not listed in the table has uncertain status according to Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary; I have not included these genera.

See also Cantharellus Clade, Lepiotoid Clade, and Physalacriaceae Clade, pages in our "Taxonomy in Transition" series.

I recommend these sources for further information on the contemporary "big picture" of mushroom taxonomy:

    Kirk, P.M. et al., eds. (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. Oxford: CAB International. 655 pp.

    McLaughlin, D. J., et al. (2001). The Mycota: A comprehensive treatise on fungi as experimental systems for basic and applied research. VII: Systematics and evolution (parts A and B). Germany: Springer-Verlag.

    Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357400.

Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2003, September). Mushroom taxonomy: The big picture. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site:

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