Key to 40 Species of Pluteus in North America
|1.||Partial veil and ring absent; cap variously colored.|
|2.||Stem bruising and discoloring bluish to greenish.|
|3.||Found east of the Rocky Mountains; odor usually strong and unpleasant; pileipellis a cutis; pleurocystidia thick-walled.|
|3.||Variously distributed; odor not distinctive; pileipellis cellular; pleurocystidia thin-walled.|
|4.||Pleurocystidia colorless; broadly lageniform to utriform; known from California to Michigan.|
|4.||Pleurocystidia brown in KOH; narrowly lageniform; known from the San Francisco Bay area.|
|5.||Cap bright red to orange.|
|5.||Cap otherwise colored.|
|6.||Cap 2-5 cm across, bright red, fading to orange; widely distributed in North America (but more common east of the Rockies).|
|6.||Cap 1-1.5 cm across, scarlet when young but eventually "almost striped yellow on more orange ground" (Singer, 1956); recorded from Florida, Cuba, and Trinidad.|
|7.||Gill edges dark (brown to gray or blackish) at maturity, contrasting with the faces.|
|7.||Gill edges not as above.|
|8.||Mature cap 1-2 cm across; pileipellis cellular; usually on the wood of hardwoods.|
(= "P. eugraptus")
|8.||Mature cap more than 2 cm across; pileipellis a cutis; on wood of conifers.|
|9.||Cap and stem finely mealy-granular or velvety; center of cap usually becoming veined.|
|9.||Cap and stem not granular or velvety; cap center not usually becoming veined.|
|10.||Gill edges brown only from about the halfway point to the margin; prongs on pleurocystidia often branched; known from northern or northern-temperate transition regions.|
|10.||Gill edges brown for entire length; prongs on pleurocystidia not branched; variously distributed.|
|11.||Widely distributed in North America; most spores 7 µ long or longer; pleurocystidia with 2-5 prongs.|
|11.||Known from the southern Appalachians; most spores under 7 µ long; most pleurocystidia with 2 prongs.|
|12.||Mature cap yellow to brownish yellow.|
|12.||Mature cap not yellow.|
|13.||Stem long and slender (4-10 cm x 3-6 mm); cap 3-5 cm across, often brownish to brownish yellow when young but soon brownish yellow to yellow overall, the surface finely granular; pileipellis a cutis.|
|13.||Stem not long and slender; cap smaller than above, bright yellow, and bald; pileipellis cellular.|
|14.||Cap white or whitish overall--or with a few brown fibers or scales over a white ground color.|
|15.||Distributed from about the 45th parallel northwards; found on wood of birches and alders; cap usually featuring brown radial fibrils.|
|15.||Variously distributed; found on wood of various trees; cap with or without brown fibrils.|
|16.||Cap 4-15 cm across; often appearing in urban areas where trees have been removed, or in woodchips (but also appearing in woods); pleurocystidia thick-walled, with apical prongs.|
|16.||Cap under 5 cm across--or, if larger, then also finely granular-tomentose; usually appearing in woods; pleurocystidia thin-walled, lacking prongs.|
|17.||Cap and stem finely granular-tomentose; cap 3-6 cm across at maturity; appearing on the deadwood of conifers (rarely the wood of hardwoods) in northern and montane North America.|
|17.||Cap and stem not granular-tomentose; cap smaller than above; substrate and range varying.|
|18.||Cap margin not lined; pileipellis a cutis.|
|18.||Cap margin lined at maturity; pileipellis cellular.|
|19.||Pleurocystidia with long necks.|
|19.||Pleurocystidia without long necks.|
|20.||Stem not yellow; pileipellis varying.|
|21.||Fresh cap and stem densely covered with brown granules; cap usually 3-6 cm across; pleurocystidia thin-walled; pileipellis a cutis.|
|21.||Cap and stem not densely covered with brown granules; cap size varying; pleurocystidia varying; pileipellis varying.|
|22.||Cap medium sized to large (regularly 4-5 cm wide or more at maturity); mushroom belonging in "Section Machopluteus."|
|22.||Cap smaller than above; mushroom belonging in "Section Wimpopluteus."|
|23.||Growing on woodchips, or on stumps of recently cut hardwood trees in urban areas; fusiform intermediate cystidia (illustration) usually abundant.|
|23.||Growing in woods; fusiform intermediate cystidia present or absent.|
|24.||Usually found on wood of conifers.|
|24.||Usually found on wood of hardwoods.|
|25.||Found in western North America.|
|25.||Found east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|26.||Clamp connections absent from pileipellis.|
|26.||Clamp connections present in pileipellis.|
|27.||Cap usually pale gray, rarely brown; montane (known from the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada); pleurocystidia with inconspicuous prongs.|
|27.||Cap usually brown; not montane (known from coastal California); pleurocystidia with well-developed prongs.|
|28.||Cheilocystidia long (55-120+ µ) and usually cylindric to slightly swollen.|
|28.||Cheilocystidia 30-70 µ, club-shaped to sphere-shaped.|
|29.||Spores measuring up to 7.5 µ long and 5 µ wide.|
|29.||Spores measuring up to 9 µ long and 6 µ wide.|
|30.||Clamp connections present in pileipellis.|
|30.||Clamp connections absent in pileipellis.|
|31.||Fusiform intermediate cystidia (illustration) usually abundant.|
|31.||Intermediate cystidia variously shaped but not predominantly fusiform.|
|32.||Widely distributed; found in urban settings, including woodchips, and in woods; spores 3.5-5.5 µ wide.|
|32.||Probably limited to boreal and northern transitional forests; spores 4.5-6.5 µ wide.|
|33.||Known from the West Coast, in coastal forests from Santa Cruz County, CA to British Columbia; cap usually dark brown; stem usually scaly.|
|33.||Known from eastern North America; cap brown to dark brown; stem scaly or not.|
|34.||Prongs on pleurocystidia not generally branched or bifurcated.|
|34.||Prongs on pleurocystidia mostly branched or bifurcated.|
|35.||Stem featuring conspicuous brown fibrils; northern and montane species.|
|35.||Stem lacking conspicuous brown fibrils; temperate species.|
|36.||Pileipellis cellular, or cellular with filamentous to cystidioid elements mixed in.|
|36.||Pileipellis a cutis with no cellular elements.|
|37.||Pileipellis composed of both filamentous to cystidioid elements and cellular elements.|
|37.||Pileipellis composed of only cellular elements.|
|38.||Cap often (but not always) developing ridges in a reticulate pattern; cystidia (especially cheilocystidia) with short to long, fingerlike apical projections.|
|38.||Cap not usually becoming ridged and reticulate; cystidia without apical projections.|
|39.||Temperate species; spores mostly ellipsoid; hymenial cystidia mostly narrowly lageniform, often with long necks.|
|39.||Tropical to subtropical species; spores mostly globose to subglobose; hymenial cystidia mostly subutriform.|
|40.||Usually found on the wood of conifers.|
|40.||Usually found on the wood of hardwoods.|
|41.||Pleurocystidia with walls under 2 µ thick, without prongs, or with inconspicuous prongs.|
|41.||Pleurocystidia with conspicuous prongs and walls 2 µ thick or more.|
|42.||Spores 7.5-9 µ long; cheilocystidia cylindric, narrowly clavate, or narrowly lageniform.|
|42.||Spores 6-7.5 µ long; cheilocystidia widely lageniform to subutriform.|
|43.||Spores averaging 7-7.5 x 4.5-7 µ.|
|43.||Spores averaging 7-9 x 5-6 µ.|
|44.||Pleurocystidia with thin walls, lacking prongs; cap becoming conspicuously grooved from the margin nearly to the center.|
|44.||Pleurocystidia with thick walls and prongs; cap not usually conspicuously grooved.|
|45.||Clamp connections present in pileipellis.|
|45.||Clamp connections absent from pileipellis.|
|46.||Pleurocystidia with walls under 2 µ thick, lacking prongs, or with inconspicuous prongs; known (so far) from Illinois.|
|46.||Pleurocystidia with walls often greater than 2 µ thick, with conspicuous prongs; widespread in North America.|
|47.||Stem with conspicuous brown fibrils or small scales; boreal and boreal-temperate transitional species.|
|47.||Stem lacking brown fibrils; tropical and subtropical species.|
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Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2015, July). The genus Pluteus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pluteus.html