Key to North American Collybioid Mushrooms
|1.||Stem with a long, root-like projection that extends into the substrate; mature cap usually at least 4 cm across.|
|1.||Stem without a root-like projection; cap variously sized.|
|2.||Growing in eastern North America or in the Rocky Mountains.|
|2.||Growing west of the Rocky Mountains.|
|3.||Cap becoming wrinkled over the center; gills remaining white in age (though one species develops rusty gill edges); spores 10 µm long or longer.|
|3.||Cap smooth; gills becoming flushed pinkish with age; spores 5.5–7 µm long.|
|4.||Stem brown, darkening with age; root-like projection fairly short; young cap convex; odor aromatic; under various conifers.|
|5.||Mushroom growing from decayed remains of other mushrooms, and/or arising from a small knot of tissue (a sclerotium); cap small (under 3 cm across), white to grayish or brownish.|
|5.||Mushroom growing from soil, forest litter, wood (sticks, logs, stumps, woodchips), or in grass; cap varying.|
|6.||Stem with numerous side branches that terminate in peg-like tips.|
|7.||Mushroom growing in grass.|
|7.||Mushroom growing from wood, woodchips, soil, cones, nut shells, leaf litter, or conifer duff.|
|8.||Cap pink, 1–3 cm across; stem pink, often with white fuzz; spores inamyloid; pileipellis a cutis.|
|8.||Cap and stem not pink; other features varying.|
|9.||Gills distant; cap bell-shaped, becoming flat with a central bump; spores smooth and inamyloid.|
|9.||Gills close or crowded; cap soon planoconvex or flat; spores ornamented and amyloid.|
|10.||Mushroom growing from fallen cones or nut shells.|
|10.||Mushroom growing from wood, woodchips, soil, leaf litter, or conifer duff.|
|11.||Growing from shells of hickory, walnut, and other hardwoods; cap bright yellow, fading to nearly whitish; hymenial cystidia fusiform.|
|11.||Growing from cones; cap whitish to brown; cystidia when present, varying.|
|12.||Growing from cones of magnolia trees.|
|12.||Growing from cones of other trees.|
|13.||Spores inamyloid; pileipellis hymeniform; substrate and distribution varying.|
|14.||On cones of pines in eastern North America.|
|14.||On cones of various conifers in western North America.|
|15.||Pleurocystidia utriform with subcapitate to capitate apices; on cones of spruces, Douglas-fir, or pines.|
|16.||Found in subalpine ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains.|
|16.||Found at low elevation in the Pacific Northwest.|
|17.||Cap usually whitish, developing pinkish hues; pleurocystidia thick-walled, with apical collars; on cones of Douglas-fir or ponderosa pine.|
= S. diminutivus, kemptonae
|17.||Cap usually brownish, but extremely variable (whitish to dark brown); pleurocystidia mostly thin-walled, without collars; on cones of Douglas-fir or spruces.|
|18.||Cap medium-sized to large (4–20 cm across when mature), grayish brown to brown or nearly black, radially streaked; stem pure white; stem 1–2 cm thick, base often (but not always) attached to white rhizomorphs; spores inamyloid, ellipsoid.|
|18.||Not completely as above.|
|19.||Cap dry, brownish orange to orangish brown; stem densely but finely fuzzy; growing from and near hardwood debris in late spring and early summer, eastern North America; spores amyloid and smooth.|
|19.||Not completely as above.|
|20.||Cap and stem conspicuously hairy; cap small (usually under 3.5 cm across), whitish to brown; growing from wood (sticks, logs, stumps).|
|20.||Cap and stem not both conspicuously hairy (though cap may be silky, or stem may conspicuously hairy in combination with a bald cap); cap size and color varying; substrate varying.|
|21.||On wood of conifers.|
|21.||On wood of hardwoods.|
|22.||Found on the West Coast; cap convex to planoconvex, whitish to buff or tawny, with a darker center.|
|22.||Found in northern North America; cap usually with a sharp central bump, brown to rusty brown.|
|23.||Mature cap 1–3.5 cm across, not becoming radially grooved (although hairs may aggregate into radial patterns); KOH red to black on cap surface.|
|23.||Mature cap 0.5–1 cm across, becoming radially grooved; KOH negative on cap surface.|
|24.||Odor and taste not reminiscent of garlic or onions.|
|25.||Growing in woodchips in eastern North America; mature cap 1–5 cm across, becoming conspicuously lined/pleated.|
|25.||Not growing in woodchips; distribution varying; cap variously sized, not becoming conspicuously lined (but perhaps developing faint lines along the margin).|
|26.||Mature cap 3–7 cm across; gills crowded; growing on leaf litter of hardwoods east of the Rocky Mountains; pileipellis a cutis.|
|26.||Mature cap usually under 3 cm across; gills close, nearly distant, or distant; substrate and distribution varying; pileipellis varying.|
|27.||Stem finely hairy to finely velvety, at least near the base; distribution varying.|
|28.||On needle duff of spruces or firs; pileipellis a cutis.|
|28.||Substrate varying; pileipellis hymeniform.|
|29.||Growing in western North America.|
|29.||Growing east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|30.||Fresh cap purple to lavender.|
|30.||Fresh cap not purple to lavender.|
|31.||Growing on the ground.|
|32.||Gills crowded and lavender, with edges colored like the faces; fresh cap lavender.|
|33.||Gills purple; KOH green to blue on cap surface; under hardwoods or conifers in southeastern North America (north to Massachusetts and Missouri).|
|33.||Gills white or yellow; KOH negative or gray on cap surface; under various trees; variously distributed.|
|34.||Under hardwoods east of the Great Plains; gills white; cap purple.|
|34.||Under subalpine conifers in western North America; gills yellow; cap dark brownish purple to lilac brown.|
|35.||Under conifers across North America; cap whitish, 4–12 cm; gills crowded; cap, gills, and stem developing reddish spots with age; spores nearly round, dextrinoid (at least a few).|
|35.||Not completely as above.|
|36.||Growing from wood (sticks, logs, stumps, woodchips, etc.).|
|36.||Growing from soil, leaf litter, or conifer duff.|
|37.||Flesh yellow or yellowish.|
|37.||Flesh white, whitish, brownish, or grayish.|
|38.||Cap reddish to purplish red.|
|38.||Cap yellow, yellowish, olive, or yellowish brown.|
|39.||On wood of conifers; cap covered with reddish to purplish red scruffies over a yellow base color.|
|40.||Cap bald or nearly so—or if tiny scales are present, scales yellowish to olive.|
|41.||Cap clear to bright yellow.|
|42.||Found only in the Pacific Northwest; cap margin sometimes fringed; spores 7–9 µm long.|
|43.||Fresh cap sticky; mature stem becoming brown and velvety to finely velvety, from the base upwards.|
|43.||Fresh cap not normally sticky; mature stem bald to hairy or scaly, but not velvety and brown.|
|44.||Cap whitish; found in British Columbia and Alaska.|
|44.||Cap more highly colored; variously distributed.|
|45.||Growing at high altitude in Mexico, from buried wood of Senecio cineraroides, a woody plant.|
|45.||Growing elsewhere; substrate not as above.|
|46.||Growing on the wood of various hardwoods; widely distributed in North America; spores 7–9 µm long.|
|47.||Cap and stem covered with dark brick red scales; cap 5–8 cm across; odor and taste strong and unpleasant.|
|47.||Not completely as above.|
|48.||Fresh cap whitish to buff, pale tan, or pale grayish brown.|
|48.||Fresh cap more highly colored.|
|49.||Usually growing in dense clusters of many mushrooms; caps pale grayish brown, streaked-looking, often with a tiny central depression; spores amyloid.|
|49.||Growing gregariously or in loose clusters of a few mushrooms; caps white to pale tan, not streaked, convex to planoconvex; spores inamyloid.|
|50.||Found in western North America on wood of conifers (often near melting snowbanks); cap whitish; mature stem length about equal to cap width.|
|50.||Found in eastern North America on wood of hardwoods; cap buff to pale tan; mature stem long in proportion to cap.|
|51.||Growing in dense clusters of many mushrooms on the wood of conifers; caps convex, reddish brown, soon fading to pinkish buff and then contrasting starkly with the bald, reddish stems; spores inamyloid.|
|51.||Not completely as above.|
|52.||Spores amyloid; cap often streaked-looking; most species (but not all) growing in dense clusters of many mushrooms.|
|52.||Spores inamyloid or dextrinoid; cap not normally streaked; growing alone, scattered, gregariously, or in loose clusters.|
|53.||Mature cap usually over 5 cm across, dark brown, vase-shaped; gills whitish to very pale gray, running down the stem; stem 6–12 cm tall; found in the Pacific Northwest.|
|53.||Mature cap smaller and paler than above, not vase-shaped; gills varying; stem much shorter than above; variously distributed.|
|54.||Mature cap 2–6 cm across, gray to gray-brown; gills distant; growing in loose clusters of a few mushrooms; spores 6–8 µm long.|
|54.||Mature cap smaller and paler than above; gills close; usually growing in dense clusters of many mushrooms; spores 3.5–6.5 µm long.|
|55.||Spores globose, 3.5–4.5 (-5) µm long; cap not usually developing a pronounced central depression (a "belly button"); found east of the Rocky Mountains on the wood of conifers.|
|55.||Spores broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 4.5–6.5 µm long; cap usually developing a pronounced central depression; ecology and distribution varying.|
|56.||Found only on the wood of hardwoods, east of the Rocky Mountains; stem finely scaly to finely hairy overall; spores 5–6.5 µm long.|
|56.||Found on the wood of hardwoods or conifers; widely distributed in North America; stem bald or finely silky near the apex; spores 4.5–6 µm long.|
|57.||Growing from woodchips in introduced settings, usually in clusters; mature cap 4–12 cm across, dark reddish brown fading to tan; stem 0.5–1 cm thick.|
|57.||Growing from sticks, logs, or stumps in woodland settings; cap and stem varying.|
|58.||Cap pale (pale brown to cinnamon buff) when fresh; gills nearly distant; stem about twice as long as the cap is wide, usually grooved and finely velvety; spores narrow (5.5–8 x 2–3 µm) and inamyloid.|
|58.||Fresh cap usually darker than above; gills, stem, and spores varying.|
|59.||Gills usually very crowded; stem bald and pliant; cap moist to greasy when fresh; stem base attached to rhizomorphs; spores inamyloid.|
|59.||Not completely as above.|
|60.||Spores round or nearly so; spores (at least a few) dextrinoid.|
|60.||Spores not round; spores dextrinoid or inamyloid.|
|61.||Found in western North America; gills promptly pink with iron salts.|
|61.||Found in eastern North America; gills faintly pinkish with iron salts after 10 minutes.|
|62.||Fresh cap purple-brown; spores (at least a few) dextrinoid; spores 5.5–7 x 3–4.5 µm.|
|62.||Cap usually not purple-brown; spores inamyloid; spore dimensions varying.|
|63.||Found in western North America.|
|63.||Found in eastern North America.|
|64.||Young gills whitish; cap becoming lined nearly to the center, medium brown when young; stem inconspicuously fuzzy; cheilocystidia to about 80 µm long, often chained, apices usually lacking knoblike projections.|
|64.||Young gills brownish; cap becoming radially wrinkled or somewhat lined about halfway to the center, dark brown when young; stem conspicuously fuzzy when fresh; cheilocystidia up to about 40 µm long, with short, knoblike projections.|
|65.||Stem tough and finely to densely fuzzy; flesh tough; gills with age becoming pinkish and/or developing reddish spots; pileipellis a cutis.|
|65.||Stem pliant and bald; flesh insubstantial; gills remaining whitish to creamy throughout development; pileipellis a hymeniform layer of broom cells.|
|66.||Fresh cap yellow, orangish yellow, or yellowish (but not yellowish brown).|
|66.||Fresh cap not yellow or yellowish.|
|67.||Appearing in spring or early summer in eastern North America under hardwoods; gills crowded and yellow; stem base attached to pinkish rhizomorphs.|
|67.||Appearing in summer and fall; distribution and ecology varying; gills close, whitish to yellowish or yellow; stem base not attached to rhizomorphs.|
|68.||Cap 0.5–3 cm across, yellow to orangish yellow or bright brownish yellow; appearing under conifers in the Rocky Mountains and under alder or conifers in northern North America; spores tiny (3–4 µm long).|
|68.||Cap larger than above—or, if under 3 cm across when mature, yellowish brown; ecology and range varying; spores longer than 4 µm.|
|69.||Under hardwoods in eastern North America; spores ellipsoid to subfusiform, inamyloid; pileipellis varying.|
|70.||Cap 3–7 cm across, yellow when fresh; widely distributed and common under various hardwoods east of the Rocky Mountains; pileipellis hymeniform.|
|70.||Cap 0.5–2.5 cm across, yellowish brown; found under birch in northeastern North America; rare; pileipellis a cutis.|
|71.||Mature stem usually at least twice as long as the width of the cap, covered with fine whitish fuzz; cap soon fading to pale tan or buff; gills crowded; often growing in loose clusters of a few mushrooms.|
|71.||Not completely as above.|
|72.||Mature stem typically 5 mm wide or wider.|
|72.||Mature stem typically under 5 mm wide.|
|73.||Cap pale brown to whitish, with a brown center, 3–11 cm; gills close or nearly distant; growing in eastern North America; pileipellis hymeniform.|
|73.||Not completely as above.|
|74.||Spores (or at least a few of them) dextrinoid.|
|75.||Gills conspicuously serrated in all stages of development (reminiscent of gills in Lentinellus); growing under spruce in eastern North America; stem more or less equal (not swollen toward the base).|
|75.||Not completely as above.|
|76.||Odor heavy and sweet, like almonds or benzadehyde; cap at first dark purplish brown; gills staining reddish with age; stem often rooting somewhat; found on the West Coast.|
|76.||Not completely as above.|
|77.||Spores round or nearly so, 3.5–5 µm; found in the Pacific Northwest and northern California.|
|78.||Cap pale (pale brown to cinnamon buff) when fresh; gills nearly distant; stem about twice as long as the cap is wide, usually grooved and finely velvety; spores narrow (5.5–8 x 2–3 µm) and inamyloid.|
|78.||Fresh cap usually darker than above; gills, stem, and spores varying.|
|79.||Gills usually very crowded; stem bald and pliant; mature cap up to 7.5 cm across; stem base attached to rhizomorphs; widely distributed in North America; spores 5–6.5 x 2.5–3.5 µm.|
|79.||Gills close or nearly distant; stem whitish-fuzzy to velvety near the base; mature cap to 3.5 cm across; rhizomorphs lacking; known from Connecticut and Massachusetts; spores 8.5–10 x 3.5–4.5 µm.|
|80.||Young gills pale to dark brown.|
|80.||Young gills not brown.|
|81.||Cap turning green with ammonia or KOH; stem brown, bald except for a fuzzy base; spores 5–8 x 2.5–4 µm.|
|81.||Cap not turning green with ammonia or KOH; stem brown or whitish, finely to densely fuzzy; spores varying.|
|82.||Spores 6–8.5 x 3.5–4 µm; cheilocystidia cylindric to clavate, with short knoblike projections; stem brownish overall; known from California.|
|82.||Spores 9–10 x 3.5–4 µm; cheilocystidia absent; stem whitish overall; known from the Pacific Northwest and Michigan.|
|83.||Gills conspicuously serrated in all stages of development (reminiscent of gills in Lentinellus); growing under spruce in eastern North America; spores (at least a few of them) dextrinoid.|
|83.||Not completely as above.|
|84.||Cap pale (pale brown to cinnamon buff) when fresh; gills nearly distant; stem about twice as long as the cap is wide, usually grooved and finely velvety; spores narrow (5.5–8 x 2–3 µm) and inamyloid.|
|84.||Not completely as above.|
|85.||Stem fuzzy or minutely hairy over the lower third or more.|
|85.||Stem bald, or with only a fuzzy base and/or minute pubescence near the apex.|
|86.||Known from California; cap 1.5–4 cm, lined nearly to the center; cheilocystidia to about 80 µm long, often chained, apices usually lacking projections; spores 8–10 x 4–5 µ`;.|
|86.||Growing in eastern North America; cap, cheilocystidia, and spores varying.|
|87.||Cap at first brown to reddish brown or orangish brown, but soon fading to pale tan or buff, contrasting with the darker, reddish brown stem; KOH on cap and stem surfaces strongly olive to green or black.|
|87.||Cap brown to reddish brown or orangish brown, fading (if at all) to cinnamon or tan; KOH negative to dull olive on cap and stem surfaces.|
|88.||Appearing in spring and early summer; stem fuzzy only over roughly the lower 1/3; gills nearly distant; hyphae of the stem encrusted with dark brown material in a water mount.|
|88.||Appearing in late summer and fall; stem fuzzy nearly to the apex; gills close; hyphae of the stem not encrusted with dark brown material in a water mount.|
|89.||Usually growing directly from soil; spores under 9 µm long; cheilocystidia present.|
|89.||Usually growing from hardwood leaf litter; spores 8.5–11 µm long; cheilocystidia present or absent.|
|90.||Known from Connecticut and Massachusetts; cheilocystidia absent; pileipellis elements mostly smooth, or inconspicuously encrusted.|
|90.||Widely distributed and common east of the Great Plains; cheilocystidia present; pileipellis elements frequently encrusted with conspicuous brown pigment.|
|91.||Known from California; cap brown, becoming lined and upturned, often darker in the center and lighter at the margin; odor foul, like rotting cabbage; lower stem dark brown to black; cheilocystidia absent; pileipellis a cutis with brown-encrusted elements.|
|91.||Not completely as above.|
|92.||Spores round or nearly so; spores (at least a few) dextrinoid.|
|92.||Spores not round; spores dextrinoid or inamyloid.|
|93.||Found in western North America; gills promptly pink with iron salts.|
|93.||Found in eastern North America; gills faintly pinkish with iron salts after 10 minutes.|
|94.||Appearing in spring and early summer in eastern North America (and reported, perhaps erroneously, from California); gills and stem pale yellow; cap very dark brown becoming reddish brown; stem attached to orangish to reddish brown rhizomorphs; pileipellis a cutis.|
|94.||Not completely as above.|
|95.||Pileipellis a cutis or layer of tangled branching hyphae.|
|96.||Found on leaf litter of birch in the northeastern United States; gills close or nearly distant; cap and stem yellowish brown; stem base without rhizomorphs; spores 9.5–11 µm long.|
|96.||Widely distributed and common across North America; found in diverse ecosystems; gills usually very crowded; cap and stem various shades of brown; stem base attached to whitish rhizomorphs; spores 5–6.5 µm long.|
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Kuo, M. (2013, February). Collybioid mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/collybioid.html