by Michael Kuo

Each species page at this site includes a references paragraph in small font below the mushroom's description. Here is an example from the page for Cordyceps militaris:

    REFERENCES: (Linnaeus, 1753) Link, 1833. (Mains, 1958; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1981; Breitenbach & Kränzlin, 1984; Arora, 1986; Phillips, 1991/2005; Lincoff, 1992; Metzler & Metzler, 1992; Barron, 1999; Roody, 2003; McNeil, 2006.) Herb. Kuo 08180607.

Species authors are given first. The author of a species is the mycologist who gave the species its currently used name--in this case Link, who named Cordyceps militaris in 1833. If Link had been the first to name the mushroom, there would be no parenthetical entry before "Link, 1833." However, Link was not the first scientist to name the mushroom; he is the person who decided it belonged in the genus Cordyceps. It was Linnaeus who first named it, in 1753; his original name (called the "basionym" by mycologists) was Clavaria militaris. Thus the official name of the mushroom, for mycologists, is "Cordyceps militaris (L) Link," giving credit to the scientist who originated the name (L for Linnaeus) and the scientist who gave the mushroom its current genus. At MushroomExpert.Com I include full names in species author citations, rather than abbreviations, and I include the dates of publications. The Index Fungorum is frequently my source for species author information.

Works cited or studied, and popular sources containing descriptions of the mushroom. The long parenthetical entry following the species author represents a list of sources I or one of the site's contributors have used while writing the page, as well as readily available field guides that describe and illustrate the mushroom. If a source is not listed below (scroll down to "Field Guides," etc.), its full citation can be found in one of two places: 1) on the genus page for the mushroom (not applicable in the case of Cordyceps militaris, since I have yet to develop a page for the genus Cordyceps) or 2) in the Complete References List for the site.

Collections of the mushroom in the MushroomExpert.Com Herbarium are cited last in the references paragraph. These are collections I have made, studied, and preserved. If I have never collected or seen the mushroom I indicate this fact here with the words "I have not collected this mushroom" (this is the case for only a few pages at the site). If I have seen and studied the mushroom (for example, on specimen tables at a mushroom club's foray) but do not have a dried specimen, this citation is blank. My collection numbers, if anyone cares, represent the date of the collection with the first six digits; the last two digits refer to the collection number on that date. Thus Cordyceps militaris was the seventh mushroom I collected on August 18, 2006: 08180607.

Complete References List

The complete list of sources I have used in order to write pages at MushroomExpert.Com is way too long to maintain as a Web page. However, the list is available as a PDF file, linked below.

Field Guides / General Interest / Beginning Mushroom Identification Sources

Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 959 pp.

Barron, G. (1999). Mushrooms of northeast North America. Canada: Lone Pine. 336 pp.

Bessette, A. E., O. K. Miller, A. R. Bessette & H. H. Miller (1995). Mushrooms of North America in color: A field guide companion to seldom-illustrated fungi. China: Syracuse UP. 172 pp.

Bessette, A. E., Roody, W. C. & Bessette, A. R. (2000). North American boletes: A color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. China: Syracuse UP. 399 pp.

Binion, D. E., H. H. Burdsall, Jr., S. L. Stephenson, O. K. Miller, Jr., W. C. Roody & L. N. Vasilyeva (2008). Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press. 467 pp.

Evenson, V. S. (1997). Mushrooms of Colorado and the southern Rocky Mountains. Denver: Denver Botanic Press. 207 pp.

Gilbertson, R. L. & Ryvarden, L. (1986). North American polypores Vol. I. Oslo: Fungiflora. 433 pp.

Gregory, T. R. (2008). Understanding evolutionary trees. Evolution: Education and Outreach 1: 121-137.

Gilbertson, R. L. & Ryvarden, L. (1987). North American polypores Vol. II. Oslo: Fungiflora. 452 pp.

Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H., eds. (1992). Nordic macromycetes Vol. 2: Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. 474 pp.

Horn, B., Kay, R., & Abel, D. (1993). A guide to Kansas mushrooms. Kansas UP. 297 pp.

Jenkins, D. T. (1986). Amanita of North America. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 198 pp.

Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)

Kibby, G. & Fatto, R. (1990). Keys to the species of Russula in northeastern North America. Somerville, NJ: Kibby-Fatto Enterprises. 70 pp.

Kuo, M. (2005). Morels. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 205 pp.

Kuo, M. (2007). 100 Edible Mushrooms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 329 pp.

Kuo, M. & A. Methven (2010). 100 Cool Mushrooms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 210 pp.

Largent, D. L. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus I: Macroscopic features. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 86 pp.

Largent, D. L. & Thiers, H. D. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus II: Field identification of genera. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 32 pp.

Largent, D. L., Johnson, D. & Watling, R. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus III: Microscopic features. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 148 pp.

Largent, D. L. & Baroni, T. J. (1988). How to identify mushrooms to genus VI: Modern genera. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 277 pp.

Lincoff, G. H. (1992). The Audubon Society field guide to North American mushrooms. New York: Knopf. 926 pp. See also Lincoff, G. H. (1985) "A key to gilled mushrooms in the Audubon field guide." Retrieved from the Mushroom, The Journal Web site:

Lockwood, T. F. (2002). Treasures from the kingdom of fungi. Korea: Taylor Lockwood. 127 pp.

McKnight, K. H. & McKnight, V. B. (1987). Mushrooms (Peterson Field Guides). New York: Houghton Mifflin. 429 pp.

McNeil, R. (2006). Le grand livre des champignons du Quebec et de l’est du Canada. Waterloo: Editions Michel Quintin. 575 pp.

Metzler, S. & Metzler, V. (1992). Texas mushrooms. Japan: U Texas P. 350 pp.

Miller, O. K. Jr. & Miller, H. H. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, CT: FalconGuide. 584 pp.

Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357-400.

Money, N. P. (2002). Mr. Bloomfield's orchard: The mysterious world of mushrooms, molds, and mycologists. New York: Oxford UP. 208 pp.

Money, N. P. (2004). Carpet monsters and killer spores: A natural history of toxic mold. New York: Oxford UP. 178 pp.

Money, N. P. (2005). Why picking wild mushrooms may be bad behaviour. Mycological Research 109: 131-135.

Moser, M. (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Ed. Kibby, G. Transl. Plant, S. London: Roger Phillips. 535 pp.

Pacific Northwest Key Council (2006). Keys to mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site:

Phillips, R. (1981). Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain & Europe. London: Pan Books.

Phillips, R. (1991). Mushrooms of North America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 319 pp.

Phillips, R. (2006). Roger's Mushrooms. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

Preston, R. J. (1989). North American trees exclusive of Mexico and tropical Florida. Ames, IA: Iowa UP. 407 pp.

Roody, W. C. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the central Appalachians. Korea: U Kentucky P. 520 pp.

Smith, A. H. (1949). Mushrooms in their natural habitat. New York: Hafner Press. 626 pp.

Smith, A. H. (1975). The mushroom hunter's field guide. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P. 264 pp.

Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp. (Click here to see corrections to this text.)

Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1981). How to know the non-gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 324 pp.

Smith, A. H. & Thiers, H. D. (1971). The boletes of Michigan. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P. 428 pp.

States, J. S. (1990). Mushrooms and truffles of the Southwest. Tucson: U Arizona P. 234 pp.

Stuntz, D. E. How to identify mushrooms to genus IV: Keys to families and genera. Eureka, California: Mad River Press. 94 pp. (Click here to see corrections to this text.)

Trappe, M., F. Evans & J. Trappe (2007). Field Guide to North American Truffles: Hunting, Identifying, and Enjoying the World’s Most Prized Fungi. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. 136 pp.

Trudell, S. & J. Ammirati (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Portland: Timber Press. 349 pp.

Tulloss, R. E. (continuously updated). Studies in Amanitaceae. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

Volk, T. (2006). Tom Volk's Fungi. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

Weber, N. S. (1995). A morel hunter's companion: A guide to true and false morels. Michigan: Thunder Bay Press. 209 pp.

Weber, N. S. & Smith, A. H. (1985). A field guide to southern mushrooms. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P. 280 pp.

Wood, M. & Stevens, F. (continuously updated). The fungi of California. Retrieved from MycoWeb Web site:

Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2102, December). References. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site:

© MushroomExpert.Com