Major Groups > Clubs & Corals


Clubs and Corals

[ Ascomycota / Basidiomycota . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

The mushrooms I have lumped together as "clubs and corals" are related only in their general appearance, and not in any taxonomic or scientific sense. In fact some of them are radically different, from a mycological standpoint, belonging to entirely different phyla. Identifying these mushrooms ranges from relatively easy to profoundly difficult. While I hope to expand coverage of this fascinating group of mushrooms in the future, for now my treatment of the clubs and corals is cursory. Below are links to various species pages, as well as a list of sources for those want to pursue the identification of clubs and corals further.

Akanthomyces aculeatus
Alloclavaria purpurea
Apiosporina morbosa
Artomyces pyxidatus
Calocera cornea
Calocera viscosa
Clavaria fumosa
Clavaria fuscata
Clavaria vermicularis
Clavaria zollingeri
Clavariadelphus americanus
Clavariadelphus lignicola
Clavariadelphus occidentalis
Clavariadelphus unicolor
Clavulina amethystinoides
Clavulina cinerea
Clavulina cristata
Clavulina rugosa
Clavulinopsis aurantiocinnabarina
Clavulinopsis corniculata
Clavulinopsis fusiformis
Clavulinopsis laeticolor
Cordyceps militaris
Cordyceps ophioglossoides
Geoglossum difforme
Geoglossum simile
Geoglossum umbratile
Hemileucoglossum alveolatum
Lentaria micheneri
Macrotyphula juncea
Microglossum olivaceum
Microglossum rufum
Microglossum viride
Podoscypha aculeata
Ramaria araiospora
Ramaria botrytis
Ramaria fennica
Ramaria formosa
Ramaria stricta
Ramariopsis kunzei
Sparassis (Genus)
      Sparassis americana
      Sparassis radicata
      Sparassis spathulata
Spathularia flavida
Spathulariopsis velutipes
Thelephora anthocephala
Thelephora multipartita
Thelephora palmata
Thelephora vialis
Tremellodendron schweinitzii
Tremellodendropsis tuberosa
Trichoglossum farlowii
Xylaria (Genus)
      Xylaria cornu-damae
      Xylaria cubensis
      Xylaria hypoxylon
      Xylaria liquidambar
      Xylaria longiana
      Xylaria longipes
      Xylaria magnoliae
      Xylaria polymorpha


Artomyces pyxidatus

Geoglossum umbratile

Clavaria zollingeri

Ramaria botrytis

Xylaria cubensis

Macrotyphula juncea


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Birkebak, J. M., J. R. Mayor, K. M. Ryberg & P. B. Matheny (2013). A systematic, morphological and ecological overview of the Clavariaceae (Agaricales). Mycologia 105: 896–911.

Burt, E. A. (1914). The Thelephoraceae of North America. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 1: 185–228.

Burt, E. A. (1922). The North American species of Clavaria with illustrations of the type specimens. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 9: 1–78.

Coker, W. C. (1921). Notes on the Thelephoraceae of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 36: 146–196.

Coker, W. C. (1923). The Clavarias of the United States and Canada. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 209 pp.

Corner, E. J. H. (1950). A monograph of Clavaria and allied genera. Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 1–740.

Corner, E. J. H. (1953). Addenda Clavariaceae. III. Annals of Botany 17: 347–368.

Corner, E. J. H. (1966a). Species of Ramaria (Clavariaceae) without clamps. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49: 101–113.

Corner, E. J. H. (1966b). The clavarioid complex of Aphelaria and Tremellodendropsis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49: 205–211.

Corner, E. J. H. (1968). A monograph of Thelephora (Basidiomycetes). Verlag: J. Cramer. 116 pp.

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Crawford, D. A. (1954). Studies on New Zealand Clavariaceae. I. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 82: 617–631.

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Doty, M. S. Clavaria, the species known from Oregon and the Pacific northwest. Corvalis: Oregon State Coll. Press. 91 p.

Ekanayaka, A. H., K. D. Hyde, E. B. Gareth Jones, Q. Zhao, A. M. Elgorban & A. H. Bahkali (2017). A new species of Trichoglossum (Geoglossales, Ascomycota) from Thailand. Phytotaxa 316: 161–170.

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Hustad, V. P., A. N. Miller, B. T. M. Dentinger & P. F. Cannon (2013). Generic circumscriptions in Geoglossomycetes. Persoonia 31: 101–111.

Hustad, V. P., V. Kučera, N. Rybáriková, P. Lizon, J. Gaisler, T. J. Baroni & A. N. Miller (2014). Geoglossum simile of North America and Europe: distribution of a widespread earth tongue species and designation of an epitype. Mycological Progress 13: 857–866.

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Kučera, V. (2012). Geoglossaceous fungi in Slovakia IV. Geoglossum alveolatum, a new species for the country. Catathelasma 14: 11–14.

Leathers C. R. 1956. New Species and Varieties of Clavaria From Michigan. Mycologia 48: 278–287

Leathers, C. R. & Smith, A. H. (1967). Two new species of clavarioid fungi. Mycologia 59: 456–462.

Lickey, E. B., K. W. Hughes & R. H. Petersen. (2002). Biogeographical patterns in Artomyces pyxidatus. Mycologia 94: 461–471.

López, A. R. & Juventino, G. A. (2008). Clavulinopsis laeticolor. Funga Veracruzana 96: 1–3.

Mains, E. B. (1954). North American species of Geoglossum and Trichoglossum. Mycologia 46: 586–631.

Mains, E. B. (1955). North American hyaline-spored species of the Geoglosseae. Mycologia 47: 846–877.

Marr, C. & Stuntz, D. (1973). Ramaria in western Washington. Germany: J. Cramer. 38 pp.

Messuti, M. I. & L. E. Lorenzo (2015). Notes on rare clavarioid species (Fungi: Basidiomycota) in Patagonia, Argentina. Check List 11: 1612.

Methven, A. S. (1990). The genus Clavariadelphus in North America. Stuttgart: J. Cramer. 192 pp.

Nannfeldt, J. A. (1942). The Geoglossaceae of Sweden (with regard also to the surrounding countries). Arkiv för Botanik 30: 1–67.

Olariaga, I. & I. Salcedo (2012). New combinations and notes in clavarioid fungi. Mycotaxon 121: 37–44.

Petersen, R.H. (1964). Notes on clavarioid fungi. I. The Clavulina castaneopes complex. Mycologia 56: 20–28.

Petersen, R. H. (1964). Notes on clavarioid fungi. II. Corrections in the genera Ramariopsis and Clavaria. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 91: 274–280.

Petersen, R. H. (1965). Notes on clavarioid fungi. III. Clavaria inaequalis Muller ex Fries. Nova Hedwigia 10: 261–268.

Petersen, R. H. (1965). Notes on clavarioid fungi. IV. Nomenclature and synonymy of Clavulinopsis pulchra and Clavaria laeticolor. Mycologia 57: 521–523.

Petersen, R. H. (1966). Notes on clavarioid fungi. V. Emendation and additions to Ramariopsis. Mycologia 58: 201–207.

Petersen, R. H. (1967). Notes on clavarioid fungi ñ VI. New species and notes on the origin of Clavulina. Mycologia 59: 39–46.

Petersen, R. H. (1967). Type studies in the Clavariaceae. Sydowia 21: 105–122.

Petersen, R. H. & Olexia, P. D. (1967). Type studies in the clavarioid fungi. I. The taxa described by Charles Horton Peck. Mycologia 59: 767–802.

Petersen, R. H. (1967). Notes on clavarioid fungi. VII. Redefinition of the Clavaria vernalis-C. mucida complex. American Midland Naturalist 77: 205–221.

Petersen, R. H. (1967). Notes on clavarioid fungi. VIII. Clavaria pinicola and C. stillingeri. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 94: 417–422.

Petersen, R. H. (1968) The genus Clavulinopsis in North America. (Mycologia Memoir No. 2.) New York: Hafner. 39 pp.

Petersen, R. H. (1969). Notes on clavarioid fungi. X. New species and type studies in Ramariopsis, with a key to species in North America. Mycologia 61: 549–559.

Petersen, R. H. (1972). Notes on clavarioid fungi. XII. Miscellaneous notes on Clavariadelphus, and a new segregate genus. Mycologia 64: 137–152.

Petersen R.H. (1972). Cultural characters in Ramaria subg. Lentoramaria, and a new taxon. American Journal of Botany 59: 1041–1046.

Petersen, R. H. (1974). Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. I. Some classic species redescribed. American Journal of Botany 61: 739–748.

Petersen, R. H. (1974). Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. II. Exclusion of Ramaria pinicola (Burt) Corner. Journal of the Elisa Mitchell Scientific Society 90: 66–68.

Petersen, R. H. (1975). Ramaria subgenus Lentoramaria with emphasis on North American taxa. Germany: J. Cramer. 161 pp.

Petersen, R. H. (1976). Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. III. R. sanguinea, R. formosa, and two new species from Europe. American Journal of Botany 63: 309–316.

Petersen, R. H. (1978). Notes on clavarioid fungi. XV. Reorganization of Clavaria, Clavulinopsis and Ramariopsis. Mycologia 70: 660–671.

Petersen, R. H. (1979). Contribution to a monograph of Ramaria IV. R. testaceo-flava and R. bataille. Nova Hedwigia 31: 25–38.

Petersen, R. H. (1981). Ramaria subgenus Echinoramaria. Germany: J. Cramer. 261 pp.

Petersen, R. H. (1982). Contributions toward a monograph of Ramaria. V. Type specimen studies of taxa described by W. C. Coker. Sydowia 35: 176–205.

Petersen, R. H. (1985). Notes on Clavaroid fungi. XX. New taxa and distributional records in Clavulina and Ramaria. Mycologia 77: 903–919.

Petersen, R. H. (1986). Some Ramaria taxa from Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 1786–1811.

Petersen, R. H. (1987). Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. VI. The Ramaria fennica - versitalis complex. Sydowia 40: 197–226.

Petersen, R. H. (1988). Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. VII. New taxa and miscellany. Mycologia 80: 223–234.

Petersen, R. H. & C. Scates. (1988). Vernally fruiting taxa of Ramaria from the Pacific Northwest. Mycotaxon 33: 101–144.

Petersen, R. H. (1989). Contributions toward a monograph of Ramaria. VIII. Some taxa sheltered under the name Ramaria flava. Persoonia 14: 23–42.

Petersen, R. H. & Litten, W. (1989). A new species of Clavaria fruiting with Vaccinium. Mycologia 81: 325–327.

Petersen, R. H. & C. Scates (2000). A new species of Ramaria subg. Ramaria from western North America. Karstenia 40: 139–142.

Quijada, L. & D. H. Pfister (2021). A tiny cup-fungus with connections to the Farlow. Newsletter of the Friends of the Farlow 74: 1–4.

Ramírez-López, I., M. Villegas-Ríos, R. Salas-Lizana, R. Garibay-Orijel & J. Alvarez-Manjarrez (2015). Thelephora versatilis and Thelephora pseudoversatilis: two new cryptic species with polymorphic basidiomes inhabiting tropical deciduous and sub-perennial forests of the Mexican Pacific coast. Mycologia 107: 346–358.

Seaver, F. J. (1951). The North American cup-fungi (inoperculates). Lancaster, PA: Lancaster Press. 428 pp.

Stalpers, J. A. (1993). The aphyllophoraceous fungi I. Keys to the species of the Thelephorales. Studies in Mycology 35: 1–168.

Toledo, L. D. de & Petersen, R. H. (1989). A toxic Ramaria species from South America. Mycologia 81: 662–664.

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Kuo, M. (2007, April). Clubs and corals. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site:

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