|Major Groups > Gilled Mushrooms > Pale-Spored / Dark-Spored > Oysters|
Oysters: Pleurotoid Mushrooms
[ Basidiomycetes . . . ]
by Michael Kuo
Mushrooms with a "pleurotoid" habit grow on wood, have gills, and typically form semicircular or kidney-shaped caps that are either directly attached to the wood or are attached by means of a rudimentary, lateral stem. They often grow in loose or dense clusters, forming shelf-like groups. However, many pleurotoid mushrooms can develop more or less central stems, especially when they grow on the upper surface of a log--when the stemless, sideways fruiting strategy would not allow the mushroom to hold its gills so that the spores will catch air currents and be distributed.
The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, is the best known mushroom in this group, and its genus name gives the pleurotoid mushrooms their label. To be less technical, I am calling these mushrooms "oysters," but it should be pointed out that neither term indicates a taxonomic group of naturally related mushrooms; it is simply convenient, when identifying mushrooms, to narrow down the possibilities by lumping the oysters together. Species of Crepidotus, for example, have brown spore prints and belong in the family Crepidotaceae--while Pleurotus ostreatus has a lilac spore print and belongs in an entirely different family, the Pleurotaceae.
Aime, M. C. (2001). Biosystematic studies in Crepidotus and the Crepidotaceae. Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic and State University. Available online:
Aime, M. C. & J. Ball (2002). The mating system in two species of Crepidotus. Mycotaxon 81: 191-194.
Aime. M. C., R. Vilgalys & O. K. Miller (2005). The Crepidotaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales): Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera and revision of the family based on molecular evidence. American Journal of Botany 92: 74-82. Available online here.
Alberto, E. et al. (1998). Reevaluation of Hohenbuehelia nigra and species with close affinities. Mycologia 90: 142-150.
Bandala, V. M. & L. Montoya (2000a). A revision of some Crepidotus species related to Mexican taxa. Mycological Research 104: 495-506.
Bandala, V. M. & Montova, L. (2000b). A taxonomic revision of some American Crepidotus. Mycologia 92: 341-353.
Bandala, V. M. & L. Montoya (2008a). Type studies in the genus Crepidotus. Mycotaxon 103: 235-254.
Bandala, V. M., L. Montoya & M. Mata (2008b). Crepidotus crocophyllus found in Costa Rica and Mexico and revision of related species in subsection Fulvifibrillosi. Mycologia 100: 335-346.
Brown, D. E. (2003). Trial field key to the pleurotoid species in the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site: http://www.svims.ca/council/Pleuro.rtf
Bunyard, B. A., S. Chaichuchote, M. S. Nicholson & D. E. Royse (1996). Ribosomal DNA analysis for resolution of genotypic classes of Pleurotus. Mycological Research 100: 143-150.
Buyck, B. & Horak, E. (1999). New taxa of pleurotoid Russulaceae. (1999). Mycologia 91: 532-537.
Guzman, G., L. Montoya, G. Mata & D. Salmones (1994). Studies in the genus Pleurotus, III. The varieties of P. ostreatus-complex based in interbreeding strains and in the study of basidiomata obtained in culture. Mycotaxon 50: 365-378.
Hesler, L. R. & Smith, A. H. (1965). North American species of Crepidotus. New York: Hafner. 187 pp. An online version of this book is available at the University of Michigan Herbarium Web site; click here to see it (URL too long for duplication)
Jin, J., K. W. Hughes & R. H. Petersen (2001). Phylogenetic relationships of Panellus (Agaricales) and related species based on morphology and ribosomal large subunit DNA sequences. Mycotaxon 79: 7-21.
Luther, B. S. & Redhead, S. A. (1981). Crepidotus cinnabarinus in North America. Mycotaxon 12: 417-430.
Mansur, M. et al. (2003). The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus secretes laccase isozymes with different substrate specificities. Mycologia 95: 1013-1020.
Miller, O. K. Jr. (1970). The genus Panellus in North America. The Michigan Botanist 9: 17-30.
Penas, M. M. et al. (2004). Structure of gene coding for the fruit body-specific hydrophobin Fbh1 of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Mycologia 96: 75-82.
Petersen, R. H. & Krisai-Greilhuber, I. (1996). An epitype specimen for Pleurotus ostreatus. Mycological Research 100: 229-235.
Petersen, R. H., K. W. Hughes & N. Psurtseva (no date). Biological species in Pleurotus. Retrieved from the University of Tennessee Web site: http://www.bio.utk.edu/mycology/Pleurotus/default.htm
Redhead, S. A. (1986). Mycological observations 15-16: On Omphalia and Pleurotus. Mycologia 78: 522-528.
Thorn, R. G. & G. L. Barron (1984). Carnivorous mushrooms. Science 224: 76-78.
Thorn, R. G. (1986). The "Pleurotus silvanus" complex. Mycotaxon 25: 27-66.
Thorn, R. G., J.-M. Moncalvo, C. A. Reddy & R. Vilgalys (2000). Phylogenetic analyses and the distribution of nematophagy support a monophyletic Pleurotaceae within the polyphyletic pleurotoid-lentinoid fungi. Mycologia 92: 241-252.
Vilgalys, R. & Sun, B. L. (1994). Ancient and recent patterns of geographic speciation in the oyster mushroom Pleurotus revealed by phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91: 4599-4603.
Vilgalys, R. & B. L. Sun (1994). Assessment of species distribution in Pleurotus based on trapping of airborne basidiospores. Mycologia 86: 270-274.
Zervakis, G. & Balis, C. (1996). A pluralistic approach in the study of Pleurotus species with emphasis on compatibility and physiology of the European morphotaxa. Mycological Research 100: 717-731.
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2005, February). Oysters: Pleurotoid mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pleurotoid.html