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Oysters: Pleurotoid Mushrooms

[ Basidiomycetes . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

Mushrooms with a "pleurotoid" habit grow on wood, have gills, and typically form semicircular or kidney-shaped caps that are either directly attached to the wood or are attached by means of a rudimentary, lateral stem. They often grow in loose or dense clusters, forming shelf-like groups. However, many pleurotoid mushrooms can develop more or less central stems, especially when they grow on the upper surface of a log--when the stemless, sideways fruiting strategy would not allow the mushroom to hold its gills so that the spores will catch air currents and be distributed.

The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, is the best known mushroom in this group, and its genus name gives the pleurotoid mushrooms their label. To be less technical, I am calling these mushrooms "oysters," but it should be pointed out that neither term indicates a taxonomic group of naturally related mushrooms; it is simply convenient, when identifying mushrooms, to narrow down the possibilities by lumping the oysters together. Species of Crepidotus, for example, have brown spore prints and belong in the family Crepidotaceae--while Pleurotus ostreatus has a lilac spore print and belongs in an entirely different family, the Pleurotaceae.


Crepidotus
   Crepidotus alabamensis
   Crepidotus applanatus
   Crepidotus cinnabarinus
   Crepidotus crocophyllus
   Crepidotus vulgaris
Hohenbuehelia
   Hohenbuehelia angustata
   Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea var. grisea
   Hohenbuehelia mastrucata
   Hohenbuehelia petaloides
Lentinellus
   Lentinellus ursinus
Panellus stipticus
Panus conchatus
Panus rudis
Phyllotopsis nidulans
Pleurotus ostreatus
Pleurotus populinus
Pleurotus pulmonarius
Resupinatus alboniger
Schizophyllum commune

 

Pleurotus ostreatus

Phyllotopsis nidulans

Hohenbuehelia mastrucata


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References

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http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05052001-173519/unrestricted/final.pdf

Aime, M. C. & J. Ball (2002). The mating system in two species of Crepidotus. Mycotaxon 81: 191-194.

Aime. M. C., R. Vilgalys & O. K. Miller (2005). The Crepidotaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales): Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera and revision of the family based on molecular evidence. American Journal of Botany 92: 74-82. Available online here.

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Bandala, V. M., L. Montoya & M. Mata (2008b). Crepidotus crocophyllus found in Costa Rica and Mexico and revision of related species in subsection Fulvifibrillosi. Mycologia 100: 335-346.

Brown, D. E. (2003). Trial field key to the pleurotoid species in the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site: http://www.svims.ca/council/Pleuro.rtf

Bunyard, B. A., S. Chaichuchote, M. S. Nicholson & D. E. Royse (1996). Ribosomal DNA analysis for resolution of genotypic classes of Pleurotus. Mycological Research 100: 143-150.

Buyck, B. & Horak, E. (1999). New taxa of pleurotoid Russulaceae. (1999). Mycologia 91: 532-537.

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Hesler, L. R. & Smith, A. H. (1965). North American species of Crepidotus. New York: Hafner. 187 pp. An online version of this book is available at the University of Michigan Herbarium Web site; click here to see it (URL too long for duplication)

Luther, B. S. & Redhead, S. A. (1981). Crepidotus cinnabarinus in North America. Mycotaxon 12: 417-430.

Mansur, M. et al. (2003). The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus secretes laccase isozymes with different substrate specificities. Mycologia 95: 1013-1020.

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Petersen, R. H., K. W. Hughes & N. Psurtseva (no date). Biological species in Pleurotus. Retrieved from the University of Tennessee Web site: http://www.bio.utk.edu/mycology/Pleurotus/default.htm

Redhead, S. A. (1986). Mycological observations 15-16: On Omphalia and Pleurotus. Mycologia 78: 522-528.

Thorn, R. G. & G. L. Barron (1984). Carnivorous mushrooms. Science 224: 76-78.

Thorn, R. G. (1986). The "Pleurotus silvanus" complex. Mycotaxon 25: 27-66.

Thorn, R. G. & G. L. Barron (1986). Nematoctonus and the tribe Resupinateae in Ontario, Canada. Mycotaxon 25: 321-453.

Thorn, R. G., J.-M. Moncalvo, C. A. Reddy & R. Vilgalys (2000). Phylogenetic analyses and the distribution of nematophagy support a monophyletic Pleurotaceae within the polyphyletic pleurotoid-lentinoid fungi. Mycologia 92: 241-252.

Vilgalys, R. & Sun, B. L. (1994). Ancient and recent patterns of geographic speciation in the oyster mushroom Pleurotus revealed by phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91: 4599-4603.

Vilgalys, R. & B. L. Sun (1994). Assessment of species distribution in Pleurotus based on trapping of airborne basidiospores. Mycologia 86: 270-274.

Zervakis, G. & Balis, C. (1996). A pluralistic approach in the study of Pleurotus species with emphasis on compatibility and physiology of the European morphotaxa. Mycological Research 100: 717-731.



Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2005, February). Oysters: Pleurotoid mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pleurotoid.html