(Partial) Key to Morphology-Defined Inocybe Taxa in North America
Unlike most keys at MushroomExpert.Com, this key is frequently microscope-based. There is just no escaping the need for microscopic analysis with Inocybe. Source abbreviations refer to the references list below the key.
|1.||Lilac or purplish shades present somewhere on the mushroom.|
|1.||Lilac or purplish shades absent.|
|2.||Spores with nodules, warts, or spiny structures.|
|3.||Cystidia absent from gill faces.|
|3.||Cystidia present on gill faces.|
|4.||Sterile cells on gill edges present but not projecting as cheilocystidia. (Note: Usually described as a brown species, but "frequenter purpureo tincto" according to Atkinson's original description.)|
|4.||True cheilocystidia present, 35-50 µ. (According to Atkinson, "pileo brunneo, purpureo-tincto.")|
|5.||Mature cap to 1 cm across, reddish brown; spores 8-10 µ long.|
|5.||Mature cap larger than above, variously colored; spores shorter than above.|
|6.||Cystidia with thin walls; cap pinkish brown but fading markedly as it dries out (hygrophanous).|
SSW 299; ATK 217
|6.||Cystidia with thick walls; cap whitish over the center, pale purplish gray elsewhere.|
|7.||Cystidia absent from gill faces.|
|7.||Cystidia present on gill faces.|
|8.||Cap with a dark purplish brown central bump, purplish brown elsewhere; gills and stem discoloring pinkish.|
|8.||Cap with a whitish or pale central bump, whitish to pale greenish or pinkish elsewhere; neither gills nor stem discoloring pinkish.|
|9.||Cap with lilac shades.|
|9.||Cap without lilac shades.|
|10.||Cap lilac to grayish lilac, fading to whitish; cystidia 40-60 µ long, fusoid-ventricose, with encrustations.|
|10.||Cap brownish, sometimes with lilac hues; cystidia 50-80 µ long, almost capitate (with swollen ends), without encrustations.|
|11.||Cystidia with thin walls; stem with a grayish sheath and a purplish apex; cap grayish.|
|11.||Cystidia with thick walls; stem variously colored but not sheathed; cap variously colored.|
|12.||Stem with conspicuously contrasting brown or rusty red hairs.|
|12.||Stem without hairs, or with pale hairs that do not contrast conspicuously.|
|13.||Cap rusty red; spores 7-10 µ long; cystidia 60-80 µ long.|
SSW 296; SS50 106
|13.||Cap brown; spores 9-11 µ long; cystidia 60-100 µ long.|
|14.||Cap creamy yellow to creamy buff, sometimes with a pale cinnamon center.|Inocybe picrosmaS78; SS50 102
|14.||Cap differently colored.|
|15.||Most spores with length in the range 10-16 µ.|
|15.||Most spores with length in the range 7-11 µ.|
|16.||Cap maroon becoming brownish; flesh with a pinkish tinge; cheilocystidia projecting prominently.|
Inocybe obscura var. rubens
|16.||Cap brown to dark brown, becoming tawny; flesh not pinkish; cheilocystidia not projecting prominently.|
|17.||Cap with a reddish brown center, pale brown elsewhere; cystidia 63 µ long or shorter; odor distinctive but not spermatic.|
|17.||Cap otherwise colored; some cystidia regularly longer than 63 µ; odor spermatic (or not recorded).|
|18.||"Gregarious or subcaespitose, 4-4.5 cm high; cap pale ochraceous-fulvous, convex then expanded, nearly gibbous, prominently squamulose and irregularly rimose, marginally smoothly radiating-rimulose, 2-2.5 cm wide; gills broadly sinuate-adnexed, ventricose, isabelline becoming rusty-fulvous; cystidia cylindric or ventricose, thick-walled, 50-70 x 10-16 µ; spores oval or subreniform, inequilateral, smooth, 8-10 x 5-6 µ; stem 4-5 mm thick, white below, violaceous above, minutely white-velutinous, not squamose, with a basal bulb whose membranous volva sometimes becomes free; flesh white above, violaceous below" (Atkinson, 1918; my translation from Latin, my emphasis).|
|18.||Not completely as above.|
|19.||Cystidia with apical, cystalized encrustations; stem base slightly enlarged.|
|19.||Cystidia without crystalized encrustations; stem base not enlarged.|
|20.||Fresh, unfaded cap white, whitish, or slightly pinkish.|
|21.||Cap with pinkish hues, and/or surfaces and flesh staining pinkish to reddish.|
|21.||Cap not pinkish; pinkish to reddish staining absent.|
|22.||Cap (and sometimes the stem) with pinkish coloration rather than pinkish staining or bruising; gills and flesh not staining pinkish; spores 10-12.5 x 5.5-6.5 µ, not nodulose, warty, or spiny; originally described under spruce and hemlock in Nova Scotia.|
|22.||Pinkish to reddish hues on surfaces and flesh resulting from staining or bruising; spores variously sized and shaped; ecology and range various.|
|23.||Odor fragrant, complex.|
|23.||Odor not distinctive.|
Inocybe aurora var. inodorata
|24.||Odor spermatic.|Inocybe whitei= Inocybe pudica
= I. geophylla var. lateritia
= Inocybe godeyi
C 683; GS6 661; K2 250;
S47 33; SSW 296
|25.||Spores nodulose or angular.|
|25.||Spores not as above.|
|26.||Cap 4-10 cm; in North America growing in low, wet, hardwood-based ecosystems.|
|26.||Cap substantially smaller than above; in various ecosystems.|
|28.||Stem terminating in a marginate bulb; cap 1-3.5 cm across; fairly well documented; probably widely distributed in North America.|
GS4 397; K2 241
|28.||Stem not terminating in a marginate bulb; cap .5-2 cm across; poorly documented; known from New York.|
|29.||Stem hollow, not terminating in a marginate bulb; odor not recorded.|
|29.||Stem not hollow, terminating in a marginate bulb; odor sweet.|Inocybe suaveolensS78; SSW 299
|30.||Pleurocystidia absent; spores (9) 11-14 µ long.|Inocybe fastigiata f. subcandida? = pale form of Inocybe rimosa
|30.||Pleurocystidia present; spore length various.|
|31.||Cap tiny (4-8 mm across); growing from decaying wood.|
|31.||Cap larger than above; terrestrial.|
|32.||Most spores over 10 µ long.|
|32.||Most spores shorter than 10 µ.|
|33.||Cap densely fibrillose.|
|33.||Cap silky, or with a slightly fibrillose margin--becoming slightly fibrillose with maturity.|
|34.||Cap 1.5-4 cm across.|
|35.||Pleurocystidia 54-72 µ long; widely distributed; common; well documented species.|
|35.||Pleurocystidia under 50 µ long; ranges apparently limited to northeastern North America; not common; documentation sparse.|
|36.||Stem 4-6 mm thick, equal, not hollow; buttons with a "profuse" cortina; odor not recorded; recorded from New York (possibly only by the type collection).|
K2 252; ATK 215
|36.||Stem 2-4 mm thick, with a basal bulb, usually hollow; cortina not mentioned by Grund & Stuntz; odor spermatic; recorded from Nova Scotia.|
|37.||Pleurocystidia under 55 µ long; stem 4-8 cm long.|Inocybe kauffmanii= Inocybe longipes
K2 248; S78
|37.||Pleurocystidia longer than 55 µ; stem 2.5-6 cm long.|
|38.||Pleurocystidia abundant, thick-walled.|Inocybe sindoniaphoto by Irene Andersson
C 681; K1 464; K2 251
|38.||Pleurocystidia scattered, thin-walled.|
Abbreviations correspond to those in the key above.
[A] Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 959 pp.
[ATK] Atkinson, G. F. (1918). Some new species of Inocybe. American Journal of Botany 5: 210-218.
[C] Cripps, C. L. (1997). The genus Inocybe in Montana aspen stands. Mycologia 89: 670-688.
[GS1] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1968). Nova Scotian Inocybes. I. Mycologia 60: 406-425.
[GS2] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1970). Nova Scotian Inocybes. II. Mycologia 62: 925-939.
[GS3] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1975). Nova Scotian Inocybes. III. Mycologia 67: 19-31.
[GS4] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1977). Nova Scotian Inocybes. IV. Mycologia 69: 392-408.
[GS5] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1980). Nova Scotian Inocybes. V. Mycologia 72: 670-688.
[GS6] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1981). Nova Scotian Inocybes. VI. Mycologia 73: 655-674.
[GS7] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1983). Nova Scotian Inocybes. VII. Mycologia 75: 257-270.
[GS8] Grund, D. W. & Stuntz, D. E. (1984). Nova Scotian Inocybes. VIII. Mycologia 76: 733-740.
Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H., eds. (1992). Nordic macromycetes Vol. 2: Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. 474 pp.
Jacobsson, S. (2008). Inocybe (Fr.) Fr. in Knudsen, H. & J. Vesterholt, eds. Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. 868-906.
[K1] Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)
Kauffman, C. H. (1920). Studies in the genus Inocybe. The species of Inocybe in Peck's collections. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 233-234: 43-60.
[K2] Kauffman, C. H. (1924). Inocybe. North American Flora 10: 227-260.
[MK] Matheny, P. B. & Kropp, B. R. (2001). A revision of the Inocybe lanuginosa group and allied species in North America. Sydowia 53: 93-139.
Matheny, P. B., Liu, Y. J., Ammirati, J. F. & Hall, B. D. (2002). Using RPB1 sequences to improve phylogenetic inference among mushrooms (Inocybe, Agaricales). American Journal of Botany 89: 688-698.
Matheny, P. B. (2005). Improving phylogenetic inference of mushrooms with RPB1 and RPB2 nucleotide sequences (Inocybe; Agaricales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 1-20.
Nishida, F. H. (1989). Key to the species of Inocybe in California. Mycotaxon 34: 191-196.
Phillips, R. (2005). Roger's Mushrooms. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.rogersmushrooms.com (see links below).
Smith, A. H. (1949). Mushrooms in their natural habitat. New York: Hafner Press. 626 pp.
[SS] Smith, A. H. & Stuntz, D. E. (1950). New or noteworthy fungi from Mt. Rainier National Park. Mycologia 42: 80-134.
[SSW] Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp.
[S47] Stuntz, D. E. (1947). Studies in the genus Inocybe I. New and noteworthy species from Washington. Mycologia 39: 21-55.
Stuntz, D. E. (1954). Studies in the genus Inocybe II. New and noteworthy species from Michigan. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 21: 163-197.
[S78] Stuntz, D. E. (1978). Interim skeleton key to some common species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest. Notes and species descriptions by Gibson, I. (2004). Retrieved from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site: http://www.svims.ca/council/Inocyb.rtf
Index to Taxa Described by Grund & Stuntz in Nova Scotian Inocybe Papers (I-VIII)
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2007, April). The genus Inocybe. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/inocybe.html