|Major Groups > Boletes|
The Boletes ("Boletales")
[ Basidiomycetes > . . . ]
by Michael Kuo
Imagine taking the cardboard tube from a roll of paper towels, and affixing a lot of seeds to the inside of the tube. Then repeat the procedure with many other tubes, and glue them together. Suspend all the tubes from a board, so they hang downward--then wait for the seeds fall out. Somewhere along the long line of natural history, the boletes decided that this would be the most successful way to survive. Their caps look like the caps of the Gilled Mushrooms (a group that decided to hang seeds from sheets of cardboard, instead)--but, on the underside of the cap, there are tubes instead of gills. The tubes are so tightly packed that one sees only the "pore surface"--the openings of the tubes, looking rather like the surface of a sponge.
There are a great many species of boletes, and identifying them ranges from relatively easy to profoundly difficult. In most cases you will need to have fresh mushrooms in front of you in order to be successful--preferably, specimens representing young and mature mushrooms. You will also frequently need to have a spore print available. In some cases, taste is an important factor, as well as chemical reactions and microscopic analysis. Boletes are mycorrhizal partners with trees--so noting what kind of tree is "hosting" your bolete can also be important information in the identification process.
Recent DNA studies have revealed some interesting things about the boletes, and the order Boletales now includes some rather strange bedfellows. To see how the order Boletales is currently divided into families and genera, see the Taxonomy page.
Key to Boletes
References (See also the references listed on individual genus pages.)
Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 959 pp.
Baroni, T. J. (1978). Chemical spot-test reactions–-boletes. Mycologia 70: 1064-1076.
Bessette, A. E., Roody, W. C. & Bessette, A. R. (2000). North American boletes: A color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. China: Syracuse UP. 399 pp.
Binder, M. & D. Hibbett (2004). Toward a global phylogeny of the boletes. Retrieved from the Clark University Web site: http://www.clarku.edu/faculty/dhibbett/boletales_stuff/Global_Boletales_2004_28S.gif
Binder, M. & D. S. Hibbet (2006). Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98: 971-981.
Both, E. E. (1993). The boletes of North America: A compendium. Buffalo NY: Buffalo Museum of Science. 436 pp.
Coker, W. C. and Beers, A. H. (1943). The boleti of North Carolina. New York: Dover. 96 pp. (1971 reprint.)
Frost, C. C. (1874). Catalogue of boleti of New England, with descriptions of new species. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Science 2: 100-105.
Grund, D. W. & Harrison, A. K. (1976). Nova Scotian boletes. Germany: J. Cramer. 283 pp.
Halling, R. E. (1983). Boletes described by Charles C. Frost. Mycologia 75: 70-92.
Halling, R. E. & Mueller, G. M. (1999). New boletes from Costa Rica. Mycologia 91: 893-899.
Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357–400. An online version of this paper is available at: http://www.biology.duke.edu/fungi/mycolab/publications/117clades.html
Murrill, W. A. (1909). The Boletaceae of North America I. Mycologia 1: 4-18.
Ortiz-Santana, B., D. J. Lodge, T. J. Baroni & E. E. Both (2007). Boletes from Belize and the Dominican Republic. Fungal Diversity 27: 247-416.
Scales, K. (2004). Trial field key to the boletes in the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site: http://www.svims.ca/council/Boletes.htm
Singer, R. (1945). The boletinae of Florida. Germany: J. Cramer. 126 pp. (1977 reprint.)
Smith, A. H. & Thiers, H. D. (1968). Notes on boletes–I. 1. The generic position of Boletus subglabripes and Boletus chromapes. 2. A comparison of four species of Tylopilus. Mycologia 60: 943-954.
Smith, A. H. & Thiers, H. D. (1971). The boletes of Michigan. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P. 428 pp. An online version of this book is available here, at the University of Michigan Herbarium (URL too long for duplication).
Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1981). How to know the non-gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 324 pp.
Snell, W. H. & Dick, E. A. (1970). The boleti of northeastern North America. Germany: J. Cramer. 115 pp.
Thiers, H. D. (1975). The boletes of California (online reprint of California mushrooms: A field guide to the boletes). Retrieved from the MykoWeb Web site: http://www.mykoweb.com/boletes/index.html
Thiers, H. D. (1976). Boletes of the southwestern United States. Mycotaxon 3: 261-273.
Watling, R. (Date not recorded). Leccinum revisited. Retrieved from the Fungus Group of South East Scotland Web site: http://www.ierm.ed.ac.uk/fgslec.htm
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2005, March). The boletes ("Boletales"). Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/boletales.html