Key to Agrocybe in North America
En Français (French translation by Roland Labbé).
|1.||Growing in clusters on wood (often the wood of willows or poplars); cap medium sized; stem with a sturdy ring; known from (and cultivated commercially in) Europe but also appearing in North America in southern hardwood forests or under baldcypress.|
|1.||Not completely as above.|
|3.||Cap dark brown in all stages of development; gills running down the stem.|
|3.||Cap paler; gills attached to the stem or pulling away from it, but not running down it.|
|5.||Stem only a few mm thick; cap small (1-3 cm), yellowish brown or paler; veil evidence very quickly disappearing; cap surface red or pinkish with KOH; spores 9-13 µ long.|
|5.||Stem usually thicker and cap usually bigger than above; veil evidence fairly persistent on cap margin and/or stem; cap surface not red or pinkish with KOH; spores variously sized.|
|6.||Cap white or very pale tan; most spores 10-14 µ long; clearly decomposing grass litter.|
|6.||Cap usually darker than above; most spores 8-11 µ long; possibly decomposing buried wood (trees, woodchips, roots of former trees, etc. in the vicinity).|
|7.||Mushroom identifier is willing to accept that recent investigations suggest the futility of determining subsequent Agrocybe species on the basis of morphology (physical features, assessed with and without a microscope).|
|7.||Mushroom identifier likes old-school morphology, has a microscope, and doesn't care that the subsequent species, as currently defined, are probably invalid.|
|8.||Growing in western North American forests in spring (account for elevation) under conifers or aspen; decomposing fragmented wood litter.|
|9.||Growing in eastern North American hardwood forests (often with maples present); decomposing fragmented wood litter or growing from logs.|
|10.||Growing in woodchips in urban settings across North America, or in disturbed ground (well worn paths, etc.) in spring.|
|11.||Stem 2-4 mm thick; growing in marshes and bogs; ring thin but persistent; spores 9-11 µ long; cystidia broadly fusoid-ventricose.|
|11.||Stem thicker than above; habitat variable but not usually in marshes or bogs; ring persistent or not; microscopic characters variable.|
|12.||Cap moist, dark yellowish brown when young, often wrinkled or veined near the center; ring persistent; cystidia clavate-mucronate, occasionally with fingerlike projections.|
|12.||Cap dry, paler than above when young, the center not wrinkled or veined; ring sometimes collapsing or disappearing; cystidia utriform, without projections.|
|13.||Growing in clusters on the dead wood of hardwoods; young cap dark brown.|
|13.||Growing elsewhere; young cap not dark brown.|
|14.||Taste bitter; growing on dung or in greenhouses.|
|14.||Taste mild or mealy; growing elsewhere. Note: Some of the subsequent species are morphological species unsupported by substantial ecological differences, and might easily collapse with mating and/or DNA studies.|
|15.||Cap 5-10 cm wide; stem .5-1 cm thick; found east of the Great Plains.|
|15.||Cap and stem smaller than above; variously distributed.|
|16.||Stem with a long "root" or rhizomorphs attached to a fleshy underground mass (a sclerotium); gills distantly spaced; spores 8-10 x 4-5 µ; found in gardens.|
|16.||Not completely as above.|
|17.||Cap pale, conspicuously wrinkled and pitted; found in lawns and grassy areas in subtropical and tropical areas; spores 15-17 x 7.5-9 µ.|
|17.||Not completely as above.|
Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 959 pp.
Flynn, T. & Miller, O. K. Jr. (1990). Biosystematics of Agrocybe molesta and sibling species allied to Agrocybe praecox in North America and Europe. Mycological Research 94: 1103-1110.
Gonzalez, P. & LaBarere, J. (1998). Sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 domains reveal highly species-specific variations within the genus Agrocybe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 4149-4160.
Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H., eds. (1992). Nordic macromycetes Vol. 2: Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. 474 pp.
Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)
Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 23: 357–400. An online version of this paper is available at: http://www.biology.duke.edu/fungi/mycolab/publications/117clades.html
Moser, M. (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Ed. Kibby, G. Transl. Plant, S. London: Roger Phillips. 535 pp.
Singer, R. (1977). Keys for the identification of the species of Agaricales I. Sydowia 30: 192-279+.
Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp.
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2006, September). The genus Agrocybe. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/agrocybe.html